Archive Record

  • Email This Page
  • Send Feedback
Object Name Scrapbook
Catalog Number 1998.080.374
Collection Hamilton County Department of Education Collection
Description Maroon and gold scrapbook. Contains newspaper articles about Chattanooga Public Schools. Dates of articles are August 1 through December 31, 1960. Articles glued onto pages. Dates of the articles are written on pages next to the articles. Scrapbook held together by maroon cord. The articles focus on the integration issue sit-ins, demonstrations, and political races that obviously affect schools.

August 1, 1960: There are nine articles for this date, two from the Chattanooga Times (hereafter referred to as the Times), and seven from the Chattanooga News Free Press (hereafter referred to as the Free Press). The first Times article is an editorial that praises Estes Kefauver for his commitment to his constituents and argues that he is connected to the people of Tennessee like few other politicians have been connected to their voters. The author urges readers to vote for Kefauver in the Democratic primary for US Senate. The second Times article is a letter to the editor defending Kefauver against the numerous, in this author's opinion, unfair attacks that had been leveled against the incumbent Senator. The first Free Press article is a letter to the editor that attacks Kefauver's record and argues that far from being smeared by his primary opponent, Kefauver had smeared himself with his own votes and actions as Senator. The second Free Press article is an editorial that attacks Senator Kefauver on his votes for the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960, and contains a point by point breakdown of some of the Act's "unconstitutional" and "anti-southern" provisions. The author urges his readers to vote for Andrew Taylor, as he was opposed to both civil rights bills. The third Free Press article is an editorial arguing that Lyndon Johnson was being used as a "Judas goat" to buy off southern opposition to the Kennedy ticket for President, and that his nomination as vice president was intended to distract southern voters from the most radical civil rights platform of any major party in history. The fourth Free Press article is an editorial highlighting the relationship Estes Kefauver had with NAACP lawyer Frank Reeves. The article also points out that Reeves was travelling with the Kennedy campaign. The connection between Reeves and Kefauver was meant to show how cozy Kefauver was with blacks and how he would vote at the behest of the NAACP and against the interest of racist whites in Tennessee. The fifth Free Press article is a letter to the editor lamenting the fact that both major political parties had "sold out" on civil rights with not a segregationist between them, and believes that a third party would be the answer. The sixth Free Press article is a letter to the editor opposing any kind of integration, and supporting the candidacy of Andrew Taylor in his race against Estes Kefauver. The seventh Free Press article is a letter to the editor supporting Kefauver in his reelection bid for the US Senate.

August 2, 1960: There are five articles for this date, two from the Times, and three from the Free Press. The first Times article is an editorial arguing that there are not that many big differences between Kefauver and his opponent Taylor, especially on the issue of the federal government and its most important programs. The second Times article is a letter to the editor, written by a New Yorker, praising the south, its people, customs, and culture, and urges them to resist changing their ways so as not to become like the "cesspools" of the north. The first Free Press article is an editorial supporting the candidacy of Andrew Taylor and opposing the reelection of Estes Kefauver. The second Free Press article is a letter to the editor supporting the reelection of Kefauver. The third Free Press article is a letter to the editor opposing the reelection of Kefauver and supporting his opponent Andrew Taylor.
August 3, 1960: There are five articles for this date, all from the Free Press. The first article is an editorial supporting Andrew Taylor in his primary bid against incumbent Senator Kefauver. The second Free Press is a letter to the editor supporting the reelection of Kefauver. The third article is a letter to the editor opposing Kefauver and supporting Taylor. The fourth article is a letter to the editor saying that it makes sense for blacks to support Kefauver, but makes no sense for whites to support him. The fifth article is a letter to the editor opposing Taylor and supporting Kefauver.

August 4, 1960: There are three articles, two photos and a cut out of a headline, all from the Free Press. The first article is a letter to the editor denouncing Andrew Taylor, and supporting Estes Kefauver in the Democratic primary election for US Senator. The second article is an editorial bemoaning the proposed rules change in the Senate that would limit debate, making it harder for a filibuster to be mounted. The intent of these rule changes were to make it easier to get civil rights legislation through the Senate. The author of this editorial believed that this would stifle the voice of southern lawmakers who were opposed to civil rights legislation, and the author argues that the change in the rules was an attack on the separation of powers and the constitution itself. The first photo included for this date shows a long line of almost all black voters waiting their turn to vote in the Democratic Primary for US Senator. The caption under the photo reads "This was a typical scene in some of the downtown controlled wards today as heavy voting was reported. This photograph was taken in the fifth ward about an hour after the polls opened. Temporarily stalled voting machines halted voting and backed up the line until the mechanical difficulty was cleared." The second photo shows a black woman sitting on a porch, and posted next to her is a large photo featuring the image of Kefauver, with the words Kefauver and Holt prominently displayed. The caption under the photo reads, "This plainly marked instruction house in the Fourth Ward was located just off the school grounds, where the polls were held. Ward boss Walter Robinson sat next door under another sign which read 'Maddox for sheriff'." The third article describes the process that occurred in the black wards of Chattanooga on voting day, from hired cars taking voters to the poll, to shouts of "One Fifteen", indicating that the candidates in position one and fifteen, Kefauver and Dave Eldridge were the ones people should cast their ballots for. The headline for this date reads, "Record Seen In Heavy Voting", and features a picture of one of the cars hired to drive voters to the polls prominently displaying stickers for Estes Kefauver and Dave Eldridge.

August 5, 1960: There are seven articles for this date, two from the Times, and five from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that Estes Kefauver's smashing triumph in his race for renomination to the US Senate was surely the greatest of his 22 year career in the Congress. It further established him at the very top rung among great campaigners in Tennessee history. The article also reports that Kefauver won by over 200,000 votes. The second Times article reports that a 17 year old white girl reported to police late Thursday night that she was seized and raped by four black youths as she and a youth, also 17, sat in a car parked on a ridge between Alton Park and St. Elmo. The first Free Press article is an editorial lamenting the victory of Estes Kefauver over his opponent Andrew Taylor. The author sees Kefauver's victory as evidence of the indifference of Tennessee voters to forced integration and the "unconstitutional so-called civil rights legislation" that Kefauver had voted for as Senator. The second Free Press article is a letter to the editor written by a conservative northerner who was disappointed to see what he called the failure of the south to effectively fight for their principles, like segregation and racism. The author was disheartened by the actions of the national parties and their stand on civil rights and integration, and would have liked to see southerners mount a stronger fight against the parties, like in 1948 with the "principled" Dixiecrats. The third Free Press article reports the same story as the Times article regarding the alleged rape of a white girl by four black youths. The fourth Free Press article reports on the massive victory of Kefauver over his primary opponent Taylor by a margin of over 200,000 votes. The fifth Free Press article contains several articles with detailed breakdowns of vote totals of all the different races held on August 4th.

August 6, 1960: There are six articles for this date, three from the Times, and three from the Free Press. The first Times article breaks down the Kefauver vs. Taylor race and details the outcomes from the different regions of Tennessee and explains the reasons for the huge Kefauver victory. The second Times article reports that seven downtown lunch counters served blacks at a prearranged time in the afternoon. The servings were accomplished quietly and without fanfare or any complications. The lunch counters were all hit with sit-in protests over the past months. The third Times article reported a shotgun attack by two white youths, one masked by a scarf, on a young black man and a girl on the grounds of Frank Trotter School at 4700 Kirkland Ave. in Alton Park was reported to police authorities. The two black youths were wounded but survived. The first Free Press article is an editorial that draws an association between the Kefauver victory and the decision by seven lunch counters in Chattanooga to serve black patrons. The author argues that this decision was caving in to coercion and believes that this is going to lead to more coercion by civil rights activists. The second Free Press article is an editorial in which the author expounds on some ideas about government. The third Free Press article is an editorial expressing indignation over the alleged rape of a white girl by black youths, and over the shotgun attack by whites on black youths. The author expresses the desire that there be no blow and counter blow between the races.

August 7, 1960: There are two articles for this date, all from the Times. The first article is an opinion piece and expresses approval that Hamilton County voters supported Estes Kefauver in his primary election. The author argues that for too long Hamilton County had the reputation of being staunchly in support of segregation, and with the vote for Kefauver, he hopes that some common sense would be brought to bear on the integration issue in Hamilton County. The second Times article reports that white merchants in 28 southern cities had desegregated their lunch counters without incident or reported business losses. The change grew out of Negro student sit-in demonstrations, some met with violence, and "selective buying" campaigns. The movement began in February 1960 in Greensboro, North Carolina.

August 8, 1960: There are seven articles for this date, one from the Times and six from the Free Press. The Times article reported that a 23 years old Negro had been charged with raping a 17 year old white girl. The first Free Press article is a letter to the editor in which the author gloats over the Kefauver win. The second Free Press article is a letter to the editor expressing dismay over the vote for Kefauver and what the author sees as Tennessee losing its southern principles. The third Free Press article is a letter to the editor in which the author declares his pride in himself and his state for their support of Kefauver. The fourth Free Press article reports on the arrest and charging of a 23 year old black man in the rape of a 17 year old white girl. The fifth Free Press article is an editorial urging diligence in the tracking down and prosecution of the men responsible for the rape of a 17 year old white girl. The sixth Free Press article is an editorial and takes exception with an article that appeared in "Minutes", a magazine for the Nationwide Insurance Company. In the Minutes article, the author urges citizens to engage in civil disobedience, like sit-ins, and argues that this is an effective way to change policy and shape the course of history. The author of the Free Press editorial vehemently disagrees and calls demonstrations like sit-ins coercion and the accuses the author of the Minutes article of trying to stir up mob rule.
August 9, 1960: There are eight article for this date, two from the Times, and six from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that detective authorities completed a four day investigation of the rape of a 17year old white girl with the announcement that six Negroes, one of whom was booked, were being held on statutory charges. Four were booked on charges of rape and the others were accused of being accessories to the crime. The second Times article is an editorial expressing appreciation for the good police work that led to the arrest of suspects in the rape case of a 17 year old girl. The first Free Press article is and editorial also expressing appreciation for the quick and efficient police work that led to the arrest of suspects in the case of the rape of a 17 year old girl. The third Free Press article reports on the six men being held in connection with the rape of a 17 year old white girl. The fourth Free Press article is an editorial criticizing President Eisenhower for promoting civil rights and setting up federal mechanisms that would investigate the integration question and would come up with ways to enforce the Supreme Court's ruling on integration.The fifth Free Press article is a letter to the editor written by a self-identified segregationist who believes that Tennessee voters sided with northern liberals in the last election. The sixth Free Press article is a letter to the editor in which the author writes that the defeat of Andrew Taylor by Kefauver was a blow to the south and a boost to liberalism and communism.

August 10, 1960: There are seven articles for this date, two from the Times, and five from the Free Press. The first Times article reported that a statement deploring the Alton Park rape case and urging speedy and impartial justice was issued by Dr. M.J. Jones, president of the Interdenominational Ministerial Alliance and pastor of the Stanley Methodist Church. The second Times article reports that six Negroes being held in connection with the rape of a 17year old white girl were scheduled to have preliminary hearings in city court and juvenile court. The first Free Press article reports that the Interdenominational Ministerial Alliance was urging speedy and impartial justice in the Alton Park rape case. The second Free Press article is a letter to the editor laying out a case for why the south should vote for the GOP in the November 1960 elections. The third Free Press article reports that city police received a report that a group of about 20 white youths attacked and severely wounded four teenage Negro boys near St. Elmo. The fourth Free Press article reported that three 16 year old Negro boys were arrested by county officers on charges of raping a 13 and half year old Negro girl. The fifth Free Press article is an editorial praising the statement urging quick and speedy justice by Dr. M.J. Jones, a black minister.

August 11, 1960: There are five articles for this date, two from the Times, and three from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that a homemade bomb or dynamite blast damaged two Negro homes in the 400 block of 7th Ave., though no one was injured. The second Times article reports that rape charges against four 16 year old Negro boys, involving a 13.5 year old Negro girl, were dropped by the Juvenile Court Judge. The first Free Press article is an editorial which argues for the tightening of controls on explosives, in light of several bomb attacks perpetrated in Chattanooga over the past few months. The second Free Press article reports that Juvenile court Judge Burrell Barker decided today that evidence against three teenage Negro boys accused of complicity in the rape of a 17 year old girl warrants their standing trial, and he ordered their release to police, who scheduled them -- and three non-juveniles -- for a hearing in city court. The third Free press article reports that, working without tangible clues, city police were pressing a search for the bomb-thrower who touched off an explosion that shattered windows in houses occupied by Negroes in East Lake.

August 12, 1960: There are eight articles for this date, five from the Times, and three from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that six young Negroes accused in the August 4 rape of a 17 year old white girl were bound over to the Hamilton County Grand Jury following a preliminary hearing before City Judge Riley Graham. Judge Graham ordered four of the defendants, charged with the rape, held without bond. The second Times article is a letter to the editor expressing pride that black voters were making progress in terms of voting more independently and not simply as part of a large bloc vote that is controlled by ward bosses. The third Times letter is a letter to the editor arguing that vigorous and stern prosecution and punishment was warranted in the Alton Park rape case, first so justice would be served, and second as a counter to segregationists who would use the case to advance their arguments. The author believed that segregationists would use the rape case as a reason integration should not occur. If proponents of integration could point to the severe and swift punishment handed down to the offenders however, they would have an effective counter to the segregationists arguments. The fourth Times article is a letter to the editor congratulating the Chattanooga Police on their swift apprehension and charging of the suspects in the Alton Park rape case. The fifth Times article reports that hours before six Negroes were held to the grand jury on charges of rape and accessory, two Negro homes were bombed -- the second time in less than three years -- on 7th Avenue.The first Free Press article reports on the arraignment hearing of the six defendants in the case of the rape of a 17 year old girl. The second Free Press article reports that lawyers for the accused rapists in the Alton Park rape case would base part of their defense on the contention that the rights of the defendants were violated because of the length of time their clients were held between the time of their arrest and their being brought before a magistrate for a hearing. The third Free Press article is a letter to the editor written by a black minister who deplores the actions of the black youths accused of raping a white girl.

August 13, 1960: There are two articles for this date, one from the Times and on from the Free Press. The Times article reports that a two story vacant house at 1710 Olive St., Avondale, advertised as available for occupancy by Negroes, was damaged severely by a dynamite blast. The Free Press article reports on the same house bombing as the Times article, and adds that this bombing was the third in the past several weeks, and that the incidents may be related.

August 14, 1960: There are six articles for this date, two from the Free Press and four from the Times. The first Free Press article is an editorial in which the author argues that the federal government has gained too much power, too much presence in people's lives, and is playing roles that are violative of the constitution and damaging to the work ethic and spirit of the average American citizen. The second Free Press article is an editorial decrying the violence that ripped through Avondale as a bomb was set off severely damaging a house advertised for rent to Negroes. The author demands the swiftest and most sever punishment for the perpetrators possible. The first Times article reports that a 43 year old white woman employed in a branch office of a laundry and cleaning company in the 400 block of East Ninth Street reported to police that she was raped and robbed by a Negro man in his early 20s. A medical examination at Erlanger Hospital gave credence to her report. The second Times article is a letter to the editor praising the recent integration of seven downtown lunch counters, hailing the move as progressive, intelligent, and Christian. The third Times article is an editorial and calls for a halt to the bombings of black residences, and extols the police to catch the bombers. The fourth article is a letter to the editor and praises the desegregation of seven downtown lunch counters.

August 15, 1960: There are five articles for this date, three from the Times, and two from the Free Press. The first Times article is a letter to the editor in which the author expresses his concern that the men who were being tried on the rape of a 17 year old girl were not given the presumption of innocence, but were already being treated in the papers as guilty men. The second Times article is a letter to the editor in which the author expresses his gratitude and appreciation for the police department in the quick apprehension of the alleged rapists in the Alton Park rape case. The third Times article reports that a group of Negro ministers met with H.P. Dunlap, commissioner of fire and police, for more than an hour and a half concerning the recent bombings of Negro homes. The first Free Press article reports that Police Chief Ed Brown said "several suspects" had been seized in connection with the reported rape of a white woman by a Negro man in a laundry and dry cleaning establishment in the 400 block of East Ninth Street. The second Free Press article is an editorial that worries about the racial atmosphere existing in Chattanooga and speculates that the recent outbreak of crimes that have racial overtones, rapes of white women by blacks, attacks of blacks by whites, and the dynamiting of black homes, was being cause by a cycle of retributive violence that needed to be stopped.

August 16, 1960: There is no material for this date.

August 17, 1960:There are four articles for this date, three from the Times, and one from the Free Press. The first Times article is a letter to the editor in which the author points out that since the rape of a white girl by black youths, there had been numerous, almost daily stories in the newspapers about the case. The day after the rape of the white girl, two blacks were shot by some white people and only one story appeared about this case, the day after it happened, and then nothing else sense. The author would have liked to see equal coverage of racially motivated crimes, but obviously the papers were biased to covering black on white crime. The second Times article is a letter to the editor in which the author replies to another letter implying that the police may have forced a confession from the defendants in a recently rape case. This letter writer does not think that there were any police on the force who would behave like that, and commends the police and the citizens of Chattanooga for what he feels was their appropriate response to the rape. The third Times article reports that the Zion survey committee met at the University of Chattanooga to begin work on the 15 day survey to determine Negro College educational needs. The Free Press article is a letter, replying to an editorial. The letter writer disagreed with the characterization of an author, the subject of the editorial, as an inciter of mob violence and anarchy.

August 18, 1960: There are four articles for this date, one from the Free Press, and three from the Times. The Free Press article is an editorial wondering whether or not the spree of bombings that had been taking place in Chattanooga would be stopped. The author called on the police and all law enforcement authorities to work together and do whatever it took to apprehend the suspects and bring the bombings to a halt. The first Times article reports that county police authorities disclosed that the dynamite-damaged home of a real estate salesman in Murray Hills was the target of a homemade bomb approximately eight months prior to the most recent bombing of his home. The second Times article is an editorial that laments the racial violence that had affected the city of Chattanooga since 1955. The author cites a study by the Southern Regional Council and the American Friends Service Committee that found Chattanooga was the scene of eight out of 18 instances of race-related violence from the period of 1955-58. The author cites bombings, barn burnings, and murders. The third Times article reports that a real estate agent's expensive home in the Murray Hills subdivision near Chickamauga Lake was rocked by two almost simultaneous explosions; no one was injured.

August 19, 1960: There are three articles for this date, all from the Free Press. The first article reports that Chief Deputy Joe Cannon of the Hamilton County Sheriff's Office disclosed that the recent dynamiting of the Murray Hills home of a local real estate agent was the second time in about eight months. The second Free Press article is an editorial and gives mixed reviews of Nixon's speech in North Carolina. The author doesn't like the position Nixon and the GOP took on the civil rights/integration issue, but notes that Nixon did say "if you are looking for promises of what the Federal Government will do for you, you should not support me." The author liked this quote although he had some major problems with Nixon and the GOP platform as a whole. The third article is a letter to the editor written by a voter who is disappointed in the civil rights plank of the Democratic platform, and who says she will never vote for a Democrat as long as they support such civil rights legislation.

August 20, 1960: There are three articles for this date, one from the Times, and two from the Free Press. The Times article reports that Chattanooga Police Commissioner H.P. Dunlap called upon all city policemen "to keep your ears and eyes open and do everything humanly possible" to solve the recent wave of bombings, rapes, robberies and break-ins. Dunlap spoke to the policemen in the city courtroom and brought up several different subjects, cautioning them to act impartially and to make sure their professional and personal conduct was above reproach. In general, the commissioner praised the conduct of the department, especially the way they handled the "racial disturbances", the sit-ins, in the Spring of 1960. The first Free Press article is a letter to the editor in which the author expresses his disappointment and frustration with Senator Lester Hill, a long-serving US Senator from Alabama, for his recent public support of the Democratic platform, and the Kennedy-Johnson Ticket. The letter writer is especially upset with the civil rights plank in the ticket, and urges Hill and his fellow Southerners to think more independently instead of always voting for Democrats regardless of their policies. The author also warns Hill and other Southern Senators that they had better wake up and start fighting for the south or else the rest of the Senate would change filibuster rules to limit debate in order to more quickly pass civil rights legislation. The second Free Press article is a piece that reports on the agreement US Attorney General Rogers had reached with several variety stores to voluntarily end their policy of segregation at the lunch counters in their southern stores. The author considers several questions relating to the agreement, such as will this mean that blacks and whites would eat together, or would the races still separated themselves voluntarily? The only companies that were mentioned in the article are Woolworth, Kress, and WT Grant, but several other reached the same agreement with the Attorney General.

August 21, 1960: There are three articles for this date, all from the Times. The first article reports on the pending integration of public schools for the fall school term in New Orleans, Houston, and Knoxville, with all of these cities being forced into some level of integration by the opening of the school year as a result of Federal Court orders. The article also reports on a pending lawsuit against the public schools in Daytona Beach, FL, brought by the NAACP. The suit, described by the NAACP as the most comprehensive yet, was to serve as a model for other legal action, according to the NAACP. Th article reports that only 4,200 black children attended schools with whites in the last school year, despite Federal Court decisions mandating it. The second article reports that an early morning explosion damages a St. Elmo Negro duplex dwelling, injuring four young children slightly. This was the fifth instance of blasts attributed to racial feeling in Chattanooga since July 16, and the fourth of August. Chattanooga Mayor Olgiati announced that he would recommend a $2,000 reward for information leading to the arrest and conviction of the person or persons responsible for the bombing. The third article reports on the imminent desegregation faced by cities in the Deep South, like New Orleans, for the first time. The article quotes the Southern Regional Council as saying that the outcome of these first Deep South integration tests would likely determine the outcome for integration in the south as a whole. The SRC also discusses the impact the Presidential election was having on the integration fight, as well as the waning influence of southern politicians on the national scene.

August 22, 1960: There are four articles, one from the Times and three from the Free Press for this date, as well as two photographs. The Times article is an editorial denouncing the most recent in a string of bombings aimed at black homes across Chattanooga. The two photographs show some of the damage done to the bombed St. Elmo duplex, one showing a group of black men surveying the damage, and the other showing a young black woman gazing out of her front door, which was blocked by debris and chunks of her home, all the result of bomb damage. The first Free Press article reports that city detectives, already busy with investigations of safe-crackings, rapes, drownings, and mysteriously set explosions, added two robberies and an ambush shooting to their list of crimes to solve. The second Free Press article is an editorial denouncing the most recent bombing targeting blacks, the author expressing his alarm at the fact that with four children injured, the bombings seemed to be moving closer to murder. The third Free Press article is the headline for this date, "11 'Bomb Patrol' Cars Added." The article reports that police would add 11 squad cars manned by 22 officers on night patrol as city officials moved to halt bombings in racially mixed areas in the wake of the fifth explosion in the city since July. Rewards totaling $5500 were posted for information leading to the arrest of the perpetrators of the bombings, and Mayor Olgiati requested assistance from the FBI to help investigate the bombings.

August 23, 1960: There are twelve articles for this date, five from the Times, four from the Free Press, and three from the Johnson City Press-Chronicle. The first Times article reports that Estes Kefauver's edge in his August 4 primary victory was officially set at 214,512. The second Times article is an editorial condemning the recent bombings in Chattanooga, and giving a bit of the history of racially motivated bombings in Tennessee and their outcomes, few suspects and fewer convictions. The author predicts that the Chattanooga bombings would likely continue, and that the police would have a very difficult time catching the perpetrators. The third Times article reports that a black man who said he had been struck with a stick by two white men was admitted to Erlanger Hospital for observation. The fourth Times article reports that the Chattanooga Kiwanis Club adopted a resolution condemning the recent bombings and asking law enforcement officials to redouble their efforts in catching the cowardly offenders. The resolution further pledged the support of the Kiwanis Club to those law enforcement officials. The fifth Times article reports that a stick of dynamite was found in the front lawn of a Red Bank apartment complex after the maintainence man ran it over while mowing the lawn. The apartment was occupied by four white families. It was unclear whether the dynamite indicated an attempt to damage the apartments, but the owner of the apartment building speculated that someone just threw the stick into the front lawn into the tall grass. The first Free Press article is an editorial lamenting the public support of the Kennedy Presidential ticket by both Alabama Senators, both Mississippi Senators, and the Governor of Georgia. The author of the editorial calls the civil rights plank of the Democratic platform, on which Kennedy was running, radical and unconstitutional. The author calls on southern voters to express their opposition to civil rights more vociferously so that their elected representatives would have no choice but to oppose it. The second Free Press article reports on two armed robberies that occurred, one on Walnut St. and one on East Main St., both crimes committed by black men. The Free Press article reports that with the offer of more than $5700 in reward money in the bombing cases, police officials had received several crank calls. The police checked some of the tips, but no evidence was found to back them up. The fourth Free Press article is an editorial praising TN Rep. Carroll Reece for helping to hold up a bill for Federal Education aid. The bill had a provision inserted into it by Harlem Rep. Adam Clayton Powell that would have refused aid to any Southern school districts refusing to comply with public school integration. Rep. Reece was one of the key men in the House helping to hold Powell's bill up. The first Johnson City Press-Chronicle article is an editorial in which the author asks two questions based upon the recent overwhelming primary victory of Estes Kefauver: How much future is there for a strictly south politician?; and How far has the cause of political conservatism receded before the rampant liberal tide? The author and the paper supported Kefauver's opponent, Taylor. The second Press-Chronicle article is an editorial expressing hope that citizens of Chattanooga would join together and help bring the bombers to justice, while condemning those responsible for the actions themselves. The third Press Chronicle article reports that rewards for information leading to the arrest and conviction of blasting Negro residences mounted to $5705 as city, county, and state law enforcement agencies were mobilized to hunt down the terrorists. The article also reports that Mayor Olgiati declared Monday after a series of conferences that "this is an organized effort to terrorize Negroes in this community".

August 24, 1960: There are seven articles for this date, four from the Time, and three from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that $1,000 was added to the reward for information leading to the arrest and conviction of those responsible for the spree of bombings, bringing the total reward up to $6,705. The second Times article reports that a white boy reported being attacked and beaten by three black youths while walking across the 23rd St. overpass, and that a black man reported that two white youth beat him with a stick. The third Times article reports that Signal Mountain police authorities, who had been trying to determine the cause of a loud blast heard a week ago, concluded that the sound was most likely caused by a sonic boom. The fourth Times article is an editorial in which the author condemns the bombings and argues that personal freedom is essential to the survival of a democratic form of government, a thing which the bombings were taking away from Chattanoogans. He beseeches his fellow citizens to behave in a way that sets an example not just for their fellow men, but for the whole world, world, that, he writes, was watching America. The first Free Press article reports that a black man armed with a long barreled pistol took approximately $350 in a holdup at Morton's Grocery at Palmetto and East Third. The second Free Press article is an editorial that uses a quote from Presidential Candidate Richard Nixon saying that, "America's national purpose was to extend the goals of the Preamble to the Constitution to our relations with all men", to elaborate on the preamble and lay out what each of the phrases that make it up really mean, and to show how the constitution implements a system for bringing these things about. The third Free Press article is the headline article for this date, the headline reading, "FBI Opens Bombing Probe Here". The article reports that US Attorney General William P. Rogers announced in Washington that the FBI was beginning an investigation into a series of bombings in Chattanooga in racially mixed neighborhoods. Attorney General Rogers stated that then federal agents had been officially to assist local police in Chattanooga at the request of Commissioner H.P. Dunlap.

August 25, 1960: There are six articles for this date, four from the Free Press and two from the Times. The first Free Press article is an editorial commending the Free Press for fighting for the south and comparing the era of civil rights and desegregation to Reconstruction, arguing that the south is suffering again at the hands of the north. The second Free Press article is an editorial written by a black man, who argues that America and the rest of the white world had better come to terms with colored people and start making concessions in terms of equality and respect. The author points out that "backwards" nations consisting mostly of colored people were industrializing quickly and that they made up 2/3 of the world population. The author suggests that it would be in the interest of white people and the United States to treat blacks and other minorities around the world with more respect and equality or their mistreatment could come back to haunt them. The third Free Press article is an editorial that praises the FBI and their skills as investigators, but argues skill alone is not enough. The author writes that the FBI needed assistance from Chattanoogans. Someone knew something about the bombings, and that someone or someones needed to come forward and help the FBI solve the case. The fourth Free Press article reports that on the heels of a speech by Lou Williams, foreman of the Hamilton County grand jury, in which he said that as a citizen he deplored the recent bombings, the Chattanooga Lions Club unanimously passed a resolution condemning the bombings. The article goes on to report some of the other highlights of Lou Williams' speech. The first Times article reports that Attorney General William Rogers Jr., acing upon a request from Commissioner Dunlap, ordered the FBI to initiate an investigation into the series of bombings in Chattanooga. The second Times article is an editorial commending the entry of the FBI in the bombing investigation and urging Chattanooga citizens to stay vigilant and help in any way they can, including with the reward offers.

August 26, 1960: There are five articles for this date, one from the Times and four from the Free Press. The Times article reports that police Commissioner Dunlap issued a statement in which he promised that the Chattanooga police, in cooperation with other law enforcement agencies, would make every effort to bring the bombers to justice, and urged the citizens of Chattanooga to offer any information they had that would be relevant to the case. The first Free Press article is a letter to the editor lamenting the choice between the Democrats and the Republicans, arguing that there is no difference between them when it comes to civil rights and desegregation. The second Free Press article is a letter to the editor in which the author urges Tennesseans to continue to resist integration in all forms both of private businesses and in the public schools. The third Free Press article is a letter to the editor questioning the editorial writers of the paper, claiming that the reason they are so strongly opposed to the Kennedy-Johnson ticket was not integration or the civil rights issue, but rather because the paper was pro-Republican. The fourth Free Press article is a letter to the editor in which the author poses several questions related to the rash of rapings, beatings, shootings, etc. that had occurred in Chattanooga over a short time period.

August 27, 1960: There are seven articles for this date, five from the Times, and two from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that a Negro man strongly believed by detective authorities to be the robber-rapist responsible for dry cleaning and laundry branch holdups on August 13 and 22 was shot and seriously wounded by a city patrolman within minutes after he allegedly held up a clerk in a branch of the Chattanooga Steam Laundry and Cleaners on East Main St. The second article from the Times is a letter to the editor lamenting the bombings and the fear they caused, and wondering what can be done to stop them. The third Times article is a letter to the editor in which the author expresses his disgust with the many acts of criminality that had been plaguing Chattanooga. The fourth Times article is a letter to the editor in which the author expresses his disappointment about all the "meanness" that was occurring in Chattanooga. The fifth Times article is an editorial commenting on the defiance of Louisiana Governor Jimmy Davis and his defiance of the courts, having threatened to close down Louisiana public schools rather than integrate them. The first Free Press article reports that a 24 year old Negro, shot and wounded by a patrolman a few minutes after a holdup had been identified as the knife-carrying man who robbed a woman clerk in another laundry office here on August 22. The second Free Press article is an editorial commenting on the warm reception given Richard Nixon on campaign stops in Birmingham and Atlanta. The author argues that this was an indication of southern disgust with the liberal civil rights plank outlined by the national democratic party, and may have indicated a growing tolerance for Republican candidates in the traditionally Democratic "solid south".

August 28, 1960: There are four articles for this date, all from the Times. The first article reports that the Chattanooga Department of Education would be starting the 1960 fall school term with a budget that was disappointing to school leaders. The department was short of funds for all sorts of things, from new teachers to supplies. The second article is a letter to the editor in which the author expresses his disgust with the race-based hate and crime that had erupted in Chattanooga. The third article is an editorial in which the author argues that it would be the undecided man who would, be decisive in the upcoming presidential election, and examines both candidates from the perspective of an undecided voter, laying out each candidate's strengths and weaknesses. The fourth article reports that an armed man held up the Super Cash Market on West Main Street, seized a handful of cash and attempted to use the owner's wife as a shield or hostage as he fled. The store operator and an employee chased the bandit, but were forced to retire when he opened fire on them with a pistol.

August 29, 1960: There are five articles for this date, one from the Times and four from the Free Press. The Times article reports that real estate agent N. Ross Walker, whose Murray Hills home was dynamited August 17, shot and severely wounded an innocent young man whom he thought was "a suspicious person". The first Free Press article reports the same incident involving Mr. Walker shooting an innocent motorist. The Free Press article features a picture of the victim's car which is peppered by shotgun pellets. The second Free Press article is an editorial in which the author laments the bombing violence that had broken out in Chattanooga, and blames the shooting of an innocent man by one of he bombing victims on the bombers, for creating a sense of paranoia and suspicion among not only their victims, but among the whole of the Chattanooga community. The third Free Press article reports that a store owner and one of his employees tried to stop a robber by chasing him, but were shot at and had to give up the chase. The fourth Free Press article is a letter to the editor in which the author argues that Federal aid to education, healthcare, etc., is an invitation to the federal government to take control of those institutions it is aiding. The author of this letter makes the case that states like Texas and Louisiana were taking back their constitutional rights to state autonomy when they challenged the federal government and their court orders on school integration.

August 30, 1960: There is no material for this date.

August 31, 1960: There are seven articles for this date, one from the Times, and six from the Free Press. The Times article is a letter to the editor written by a black woman whose husband was viciously attacked by two white men and sent to the hospital. The author urges the public to be more tolerant and less hateful and she also urges more prayer, something she thinks the residents of Chattanooga needed during a time when violence seemed to be breaking out almost everywhere. The first Free Press article is an editorial praising the speech Senator Harry F. Byrd of Virginia gave to the American Bar Association, complaining that the Warren Court had overstepped its constitutional bounds and that it was usurping the power of the other two branches of government. Byrd also argued that the Federal government as a whole was becoming to centralized and paternalistic, a worrying trend that he feared could lead to state Socialism. The second article is an excoriating "review" of a new book by Eleanor Roosevelt. The author of the article calls Roosevelt the most hated woman in the south since Harriet Beecher Stowe, and criticizes pretty much everything about her, including her children's marriage problems. The third Free Press article is an editorial condemning the riots and lawlessness that had broken out in Jacksonville, FL. The author warns Chattanoogans that regardless of perceived injustices, there is never any excuse to let one's emotions run away with them and engage in violent action. The parallel being drawn between the events in Jacksonville and Chattanooga obviously has to do with the outbreak of racial violence and especially the series of bombings that targeted mostly black and mixed race neighborhoods. The fourth Free Press article is a letter to the editor in which the author argues that southern delegates in the electoral college should not pledge their votes to either the Republican candidate (Nixon), or the Democratic candidate (Kennedy) but should hold out and remain unpledged, sending the election to the House of Representatives, where southern members could then elect whichever candidate was willing to concede the most (in terms of civil rights/ integration) to the south. The author brings up the contested Hayes-Tilden contest in 1876, the so called corrupt bargain when Hayes removed Federal troops from the south after being elected to the presidency with southern support in the house. The fifth Free Press article is a letter to the editor in which the author expresses his indignation at so called kneel-in protests that took place in Atlanta in which blacks protested at segregated churches by kneeling and refusing to leave. The sixth Free Press article reports that Chattanooga's "model" elementary school was opened for business. The 20 classroom Charles A. Bell school in Alton Park for Negro children was described by school officials as the best the city had to offer, a showpiece of beauty and utility. The article features five photographs showing the school's "enrichment room", the $90,000 cafeteria, the library, the aluminum acoustical ceiling, and the auditorium.

September 1, 1960: There are six articles for this date, one from the Times, and five from the Free Press. The Times article is an editorial which argues that America is an example to the rest of the world, the leader of the free world, and the actions of its citizens were seen by the world and judged. In the age of the USSR vs. the U.S., the author argues, every example of race hatred, bigotry, or religious intolerance would be used by the communists as proof that the U.S. was not all it was cracked up to be but was a place that espoused freedom and equality but didn't practice it. The first Free Press article reports that Special Sessions Judge Archie Lawrence bound N. Ross Walker, 31 year old real estate man, over to the Hamilton County grand jury on a felonious assault charge in the shooting of a motorist outside Walker's Murray Hills home. Walker, whose house was dynamited on August 17, was standing guard with a shotgun when the motorist stopped to try and find an address of a friend. Walker, thinking the man's behavior was suspicious and that he may have been connected with the earlier bombing, opened fire. The second Free Press article is a letter to the editor written by a segregationist, who wanted Chief Justice Earl Warren of the Supreme Court to take a lie detector test. The third Free Press article is a letter to the editor in which the author uses the Bible to argue that integration is wrong. The fourth Free Press article reports that City Police investigated a report that two unidentified white men attacked and slightly injured a young black man in the 200 block of West 37th Street. The fifth Free Press article is a letter to the editor that blames the Warren Court and the "pushy" NAACP for the racial violence that was occurring in Chattanooga and across the south.

September 2, 1960: There is one article from the Free Press for this date. The article is an editorial disagreeing with the Warren Court's rejection of attempts by the New Orleans and Houston public school systems to delay forced integration. The author argues that this was another case of the Warren Court stripping a majority of individuals of their rights, and the unlawful imposition of the will of the minority on a resistant majority.

September 3, 1960: There are four articles for this date, all from the Free Press. The first article is a letter to the editor that supports the candidacy of Richard Nixon over JFK, and though expectant of a bad time for the south in terms of race issues whichever party is in power, believed that Nixon and the GOP were more fit to lead the country. The second article reports that the Rev. W.A. Dennis of Chattanooga was elected vice president of a state Negro organization designed for "an all-out offensive against the citadels of segregation". The organization was The Tennessee Christian Leadership Conference. The third article is a letter to the editor supporting the GOP and Nixon in the upcoming presidential elections. The fourth article is a letter to the editor complaining about the so called kneel-ins that had been taking place, where blacks would show up in racially segregated churches and kneel in prayer, refusing to accept seating for blacks only. The author claims that these demonstrators were there only to cause trouble and were acting in an irreligious manner.

September 4, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Times. The article reports that a man who was shot by a police officer minutes after he allegedly robbed a laundry and dry cleaners admitted that he was a fugitive from a prison camp in Heflin, Ala.

September 5, 1960: There are three articles for this date, one from the Times, and two from the Free Press. The Times article reports that in downtown Lafayette, GA, a 22 year old Chattanooga woman charged that she was abducted and manhandled by three blacks. She also reported that she thought she had been raped, but a medical exam was inconclusive. The first Free Press article reports on the same rape allegation made by the Chattanooga woman in Lafayette. The third Free Press article is an editorial arguing that presidential candidate JFK was a supporter of ever increasing Federal Government power and authority. The author claims that Kennedy didn't trust local people and their representatives to make sound decisions based upon what those people thought was the best thing for them. The author believes that Kennedy, if elected, would increase the scope and power of the Federal Government and that state and local governments would have ever-dwindling say in the affairs of their people.

September 6, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Times. The article reports that a 19-year old black youth complained to city police that he was beaten by two white men in the 200 block of West 37th Street. A police report said the man suffered head bruises, and that he did not go to the hospital for treatment.

September 7, 1960: There are two articles and an editorial cartoon for this date, all from the Times. The cartoon depicts two blind mice, or possibly some other blind rodent, who appear as if they have reunited after a long time apart, underground. One of the mice is labeled "racial prejudice", and the other is labeled "religious bigotry", and two of the rocks which line the floor of the underground burrow the mice are in are labeled "underground", and "politics". The caption at the top of the cartoon reads "Long Time No See". The first article reports that the mother of the black youth who reported that he was beaten by two white men corrected the age of her son to 15, and the address to 208 W. 37th St. The second article reports that the man suspected of robbing two laundry and dry cleaning stores, and who was shot by a police officer as he attempted to flee the scene of one of the crimes, died of his wounds.

September 8, 1960: There are three articles for this date, all from the Free Press. The first article reports that a bomb blasted a phone booth in the 5200 block of Dayton Blvd. in Red Bank. The Red Bank-White Oak Police were investigating the blast, along with help from the FBI, which had a team of investigators in Chattanooga because of a spree of bombings taking place there. The second Free Press article is an editorial denouncing the bombing of the phone booth in Red Bank. The third article is an editorial commenting on the decision of a South Carolina Federal Judge's decision to step down from his position rather than rule on an integration case because he believed that the Warren Court's 1954 integration ruling was unconstitutional, a position that the editorial board of the Free Press heartily agreed with.

September 9, 1960: There is one article from the Free Press for this date. The article reports that a mysteriously-set fire extensively damaged a vacant house at 1318 Bradt St. in a predominantly white neighborhood, hours before the house was due to be occupied by a black family.

September 10, 1960: There are four articles for this date, two from the Times, and two from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that Chief Mike Quinn, head of the Chattanooga fire prevention bureau, said there was evidence of arson in a fire that damaged a house in racially mixed Avondale. The second Times article is an editorial denouncing the cowardly arson of a house in Avondale set to be occupied by a black family. The first Free Press article is an editorial denouncing all race based criminal action, whether black on white, or white on black. The second Free Press article is an editorial lamenting the fact that while the south had given the national Democratic party its "all" for more than a century, Kennedy, the Democratic nominee for President, and the rest of the National Democrats, seemed to be turning on the south by embracing what this author describes as a radical agenda on civil rights and integration.

September 11, 1960: There is no material for this date.

September 12, 1960: There are three articles for this date from the Free Press. The article reports that a new Hamilton County grand jury received a special instruction from Judge Tillman Grant in regard to its powers to investigate and act in the recent bombings of private homes in the Chattanooga area. There is a picture of the members of the grand jury included with the article, as well as a list of their names. The second article is a letter to the editor endorsing Nixon for President over Kennedy. The third article is an editorial criticizing Florida Governor LeRoy Collins for attacking the south, saying that southern leaders bore the blame in setting the stage for conflict and disorder in the racial crisis.

September 13, 1960: There are two articles for this date, one from the Times and one from the Free Press. The Times article is an editorial praising Judge Tillman Grant in his instructions to the grand jury empowered to investigate the string of bombings that struck Chattanooga. The Free Press article is an editorial which also praises Judged Grant, and hopes that the grand jury he empanelled will identify those responsible for the bombings so they could be brought to justice.

September 14, 1960: There are three articles for this date, all from the Free Press. The first article reports that four young black men accused of attacking a 17 year old white girl in South Chattanooga the night of August 4 were indicted by the Hamilton County grand jury on a charge of rape. The second article reports that a scare caused by a sonic boom may be repeated as the air force reported that a four engine supersonic jet might fly over the area. The third article is an editorial that condemns the federal government for bringing a suit against Memphis on the grounds that it denied blacks voting rights there. The author argues that the state and local governments, not the federal government is empowered to make laws and rule regarding voting rights and qualifications, and that the federal government had no right or authority to meddle with the voting affairs of Memphis or any state or locality.

September 15, 1960: There is no material for this date.

September 16, 1960: There is no material for this date.

September 17, 1960: There is no material for this date.

September 18, 1960: There are three articles for this date, all from the Times. The first article reports the flyover of a supersonic bomber which caused a sonic boom around the Chattanooga area scaring some, believing the sound they heard was a bomb's detonation. The second article reports that the bombing of an outdoor telephone booth at 5200 Dayton Blvd. on the night of Sept. 7th was solved by officers of the Red Bank-White Oak police department with the arrest of three teenagers and their subsequent interrogation by the policemen and two agents of the FBI. Authorities said there was no particular motive in destroying the booth, other than playing a prank. The third article reports that Southern black youths were planning a renewed assault on segregation in the fall of 1960 far more massive in scope than the recent sit-in demonstrations. They expected to begin the campaign after colleges open with their activism likely reaching a peak shortly before the presidential election.

September 19, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Free Press. The article reports that four young black men, charged with raping a 17year old white girl on August 4, 1960 pleaded not guilty when arraigned before Judge Campbell Carden, who set the trial for Oct. 19.

September 20, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Times. The article reports that the trial of four young black men indicted on a charge of raping a 17year old white girl had been set for Oct. 19.

September 21, 1960: There are two articles for this date both from the Free Press. The first article is a letter to the editor in which the author endorses JFK for president saying that Kennedy has as much of a right to be a Catholic president as Nixon has got to be a Quaker President. The author also calls Nixon an NAACP leader. The second article is a letter to the editor denouncing Kennedy and endorsing Nixon, the author arguing that Kennedy would use the presidency to make the federal government too powerful.

September 22, 1960: There are four articles for this date, two from the Times and two from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that Wayne Pitts, 25, reported to police he was beaten up by several black youth near the stock barn at Warner Park while leaving the interstate fair. The second article reports that Paul Hutcherson, 16, told police he was attacked by six black youths while walking along the railroad tracks between Warner Park and Engel Stadium. The first Free Press article reports on the same two beating claims as the two Times articles already cited for this date. The second Free Press article is an editorial commenting on the visit presidential candidate John Kennedy made to Tennessee, during which he praised President Andrew Johnson, a native of Tennessee for refusing to liquidate the south after the Civil War, choosing instead a course of reason and reconciliation, a course that got him impeached by Radical Republicans. The author argues that Kennedy's position on civil rights and integration was not the path of reason and reconciliation, but rather a radical path more akin to the Radical Republicans than to Andrew Johnson.

September 23, 1960: There is no material for this date.

September 24, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Free Press. The article is an editorial commenting on statements made by Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Arthur S. Fleming about the school situation in Prince Edward County Virginia, a situation he called indefensible, and a blight on the education scene. The white citizens of Prince Edward County, instead of complying with an order to integrate their public schools, chose to shut them down and set up a private school system that maintained segregation. Of course this left nowhere for the more than 1,000 black residents to go to school. The editorial author claims that all was well and good however, as the whites of the county offered to set up a black private school system so all would be nice, separate, and "equal". The blacks of the county refused this arrangement, the author claims at the behest of the NAACP, for they couldn't have believed in integration as a principle, it had to be motivated by subversive agitators.

September 25, 1960: There is no material for this date.

September 26, 1960: There are two articles for this date, one from the Times, and on from the Free Press. The Times article reports that a fire in a Dempster-Dumpster garbage can threw a scare into fire and police officials for a few minutes. A woman, seeing the fire, telephoned police reporting that there had been an explosion at the North Chattanooga Junior High, and that it was in flames. Another caller reported much the same thing. The Free Press article is an editorial commenting on the stay of Fidel Castro at a black-operated hotel in Harlem for the UN session. The hotel operators let Castro stay in the hotel saying that they couldn't afford to discriminate against anyone. The author uses this to make the argument that any private business had a right to refuse or accept any guest they wanted for whatever reason, calling this a right of the business owner.

September 27, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Times. The article reports that James E. Cunningham, 22, one of four black youths charged with raping a 17-year old white girl on Aug. 4, lost his bid for a separate trial.

September 28, 1960: There are three articles for this date all from the Free Press. The first article is a letter to the editor opposing Kennedy for president in the upcoming election. The second article is an editorial criticizing the action of 10 southern governors, who endorsed John Kennedy for president. The author is disappointed that although democrats, like Kennedy, these governors couldn't see how bad for the south Kennedy was, especially on integration and civil rights. The author also urges voters to not blindly vote democrat but to think about which candidate would be best for them and the south. The third article is an editorial which lays out a case against the 1954 integration ruling issued by the Warren Court, and praises a Tennessee Appeals Court Judge for using his position to argue against the decision.

September 29, 1960: There is one article from the Times for this date. The article reports that plans for new moves against school and recreational segregation in Tennessee were to be mapped out in Nashville at the state convention of the NAACP, according to a spokesman.

September 30, 1960: There are four articles from the Free Press for this date. The first article is a letter to the editor lamenting the pledge ten southern governors took for a solid south. The reader questions whether this new solid south was to be solid black, solid white, or solid, striped, and expressed his support for the old solid south, one of racism and segregation. The second article focuses on the history of the black vote, and examines the ways in which politicians have sought to get it. The article also looks at how the candidates in the 1960 election were courting the black vote. The third article is an editorial that puzzles over ten southern governor's support of Kennedy, while at the same time urging a more thorough teaching of the constitution in schools all over the country. The author sees these two things as contradiction, arguing that the Kennedy platform is unconstitutional on its face. The fourth article is an editorial argues that the Warren Court integration decision opened the way for federal intervention in all sorts of states' rights issues, and points to the recent event of New York and New Jersey governors seeking assistance of the south after they felt the federal government had unconstitutionally interfered in the affairs of their ports.

October 1, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Free Press. The article is an editorial that denounces Lyndon Johnson as a sell out to the south, criticizing him for leading the passage of the civil rights bill of 1957 as Senate Majority Leader, and urging even more action on the part of the federal government on the integration and civil rights issue. The author then calls out Johnson for running as a man of the south even though his actions, according to the editorialist, were terrible for the south.

October 2, 1960: There is no material for this date.

October 3, 1960: There are three articles for this date, one from the Times, and two from the Free Press. The Times article reports that what was believed to be a homemade bomb which failed to explode was thrown through the window of the Stardust Barbecue 331 E. 9th St., a black eating and dancing place. Three white men were reportedly seen throwing the object through the window and then speeding away in a late model car. The first Free Press article reports that what was identified as an "old-style" tear gas canister was thrown through the window of Stardust Bar-B-Q on 9th Street. The third article is an editorial which seeks to counter the argument used by ant-segregationists. The argument was that the discrimination practiced by the south lowered the prestige of the U.S. in the eyes of the world and played into the hands of the communists by confirming what they said about us. This editorial writer quotes Hawaiian Rep. Fong, who had traveled to Asia and noted that many of the countries there practiced even worse discrimination than the south. The author then makes the weak claim that the south had a system where all stood equal before the law.

October 4, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Times. The article reports that police identified the object thrown through the window of a black restaurant and dance hall as an old tear gas canister.

October 5, 1960: There are two articles for this date, one from the Free Press, and on from the Times. The Free Press article is a letter to the editor that rants and raves about how horrible Kennedy would be for the United States if elected. The author makes many claims, mostly about one-world government, mongrelization of the races, and a labor union- communist conspiracy in which these two organizations would divvy up the nation after Kennedy was elected and handed them control of the country. The Times article is a letter to the editor written by a black man who responds to Fidel Castro's speech at the UN which criticized the U.S. for its treatment of its black population and claimed that in the socialist utopia of Cuba, there was no discrimination, no one was treated badly. This letter writer argues that blacks in the south, though mistreated, had it much better than the residents of Fidel Castro's Cuba.

October 6, 1960: There are two articles for this date, one from the Times, and one from the Free Press. The Times article reports that a poll conducted by the Daily Princetonian indicated that 72.3% of Princeton University faculty members favored he Democratic ticket. The Free Press article reports that the Hamilton County grand jury returned indictments against two black youths charged as accessories in an assault on a 17-year old white girl which has already resulted in rape indictments against four other black youths.

October 7, 1960: There is no material for this date.

October 8, 1960: There is no material for this date.

October 9, 1960: There is no material for this date.

October 10, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Free Press. The article reports that two more young black men indicted on a charge of raping a 17-year old white girl entered pleas of not guilty when arraigned before Judge Campbell Carden.

October 11, 1960: There is one article for this date, a letter to the editor from the Times. The letter, written by a black woman is a response to an earlier letter to the editor arguing for discrimination and making the case that all of the rapes and other crimes committed by blacks had something to do with the color of their skin. This letter argues that to be a true Christian, one must not discriminate but love all people and treat them with kindness and equality. She argues that God made each person just the way they were supposed to be and for men to discriminate because of how someone was made was equivalent to insulting God and His creation.

October 12-18: There is no material for this date.

October 19: There is one article for this date from the Free Press. The article reports that State's attorneys paved the way toward a demand for the death penalty for four young black men charged with raping a 17-year old white girl, as examination of prospective jurors began in Judge Campbell Carden's court. Each member of a special group of jurors summoned for the trial was questioned closely as to whether he or she would have any moral objections returning a verdict of death, if the law and evidence warranted it.

October 20, 1960: There are two articles for this date, one from the Times, and one from the Free Press. The Times article reports that ten jurors were seated as then trial of four black men charged with the rape of a 17 year old white girl opened in criminal court. The state's indication that it will demand the death penalty resulted in the exclusion of 32 jurors on grounds that they were opposed to capital punishment. Two other prospective jurors were excused by Criminal Court Judge Campbell Carden on grounds that they had already formed an opinion about the case. The Free Press article reports that Judge Campbell Carden for the second time had to order jurors pressed into service from off the streets for the trial of four young black men accused of raping a white girl, as court adjourned with only 11 jurors tentatively approved by both the prosecution and the defense.

October 21, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Free Press. The article reports on the trial of four black men accused of raping a white girl, featuring the highlights from this day of testimony, including a witness for the state repudiating several of the statements he had made the day before. The victim in the case also took the stand to give her testimony. The trial also wrapped up and was given to the jury on the evening of this date.

October 22, 1960: There are four articles for this date, two from the Times, and two from the Free Press. The article reports that U.S. District Judge Leslie R. Darr ordered the Chattanooga Board of Education to submit a plan for the desegregation of the city's public school system by Dec. 20. He set a hearing for the plan for Jan.9, 1961. Judge Darr's decision had been awaited since last July, when the board of education counsel and counsel for four black children and their parents appeared before him asking to be sustained in respective motions for summary judgment. The second Times article reports that a jury of 12 white men Friday night, Oct.21, found four black men guilty of the Aug. 4 rape of a 17 year old white girl and set punishment at death by electrocution. The jury came in at 10:17p.m., almost two hours after it got the case which opened Wednesday, Oct. 19, in Criminal Court. Judge Carden sentenced the four to die in the electric chair at a date to be set in the future. The first Free Press article reports the death sentence handed down for four young black men in a rape case. The second Free Press article reports the Dec.20 deadline for the Chattanooga Board of Education to submit a plan to desegregate public schools, and the Jan. 9 hearing for the plan. There is also a copy of the whole of Judge Darr's decision in the public school integration case.

October 23, 1960: There are three articles for this date, all from the Times. The first article reports that an appeal could be taken to the action of U.S. District Judge Leslie R. Darr Friday in sustaining a motion for summary judgment in the Chattanooga school integration case, but whether the city's board of education will pursue that course is undetermined. The second article is an editorial urging Chattanoogans to come together and try to find a workable solution to the school integration problem, and to not get too worked up, but to calmly pursue a sensible course. The third article is an editorial commenting on the death penalty verdict handed down in the case of four black men accused of raping a white girl. The author, while finding the crime abhorrent, wonders whether the death penalty would have been handed down if four white men had been convicted of raping a black woman.

October 24, 1960: There are two articles for this date, one from the Free Press, and one from the Times. The Free Press article is an editorial calling for the issuance of a 7million dollar bond issue for the purpose of expanding many of the schools around the area. The author also sees the bond issue as a way to minimize forced integration. For example he proposes moving Chattanooga High across the river into North Chattanooga, and using the 3rd street location where Chattanooga High currently sat as a school for the black high school students who couldn't be accommodated at Howard High. The Times article is a profile of N. Ross Walker, the man whose Murray Hills home was bombed in August, and who was under a $1000 bond for felonious assault after he shot a man he thought was acting suspiciously outside of his home one night.

October 25, 1960: There are three articles for this date, one from the Times and two from the Free Press. The Times article reports that the Interdenominational Ministerial Alliance, an organization of black ministers, in a statement expressed concern over developments in the trial and conviction on rape charges of four young black men. The statement expresses the hope that a new trial would be granted and that "such a trial would be conceived and carried out in an atmosphere where justice would be arrived at beyond a reason of doubt." The first Free Press article reports on the call by black ministers for a retrial of the four black men on rape charges, the same topic reported on in the Times article mentioned earlier. The second Free Press article is an editorial that takes exception with the black ministers calling for a retrial of the four black men in the death penalty rape case. The author of the editorial quotes the ministers as quoting the Free Press as having written that the community was stunned by the death penalty convictions, when the story actually reported that those inside the courtroom were surprised by the verdict. The author then goes on to reaffirm the Free Press editorial board's position that the outcome of the trial, and the death penalty verdicts were just and proper to the offense committed.

October 26, 1960: There are two articles for this date, one from the Free Press and one from the Times. The Free Press article is an editorial that uses the case of a death row inmate who, by mounting appeal after appeal, delayed his inevitable sentence by 12 years. The author argues that the Chattanooga School Board had been sentenced to integrate its schools, and it should use delay tactics, appealing the Federal Court integration order as many times as possible, so as to delay the integration of Chattanooga's public schools. The Times article is a letter to the editor praising an editorial from the Sunday Times which denounced the death penalty sentence of four black men convicted of raping a white woman. The letter writer expresses his regret over the death penalty decision as well.

October 27, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Times. The article reports that Ross Walker, 32, real estate agent whose Murray Hills home was rocked by two dynamite blasts last Aug. 17, was indicted on a felonious assault charge in connection with the shooting of an innocent motorist.

October 28, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Free Press. The article is a letter to the editor which expresses approval of the death penalty verdict handed down in the trial of four black men convicted of raping a white woman.

October 29, 1960: There are two articles for this date, both from the Free Press. The first article is a letter to the editor condemning the black ministers who came out urging a new trial for the four black men convicted of raping a young white woman, and sentenced to death. The second article is a letter to the editor expressing disappointment with the death penalty handed down to four black men convicted of rape.

October 30, 1960: There is one article from the Times for this date. The article is an editorial in which the author agrees with the imposition of the death penalty in the rape conviction of four black men.

October 31, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Free Press. The article reports that a trial date of Dec. 9 was set for two young black men charged with rape in an assault on a 17-year old white girl last Aug. 4, the same crime for which four other black men were sentenced to death by a jury a little more than a week before this date.

November 1, 1960: There are five articles for this date, four from the Times and one from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that two of the six black men charged with raping a white girl last Aug. 4 pleaded not guilty at an arraignment before Judge Campbell Carden. The second Times article reports on then relative lack of hijinx that took place on Halloween night across Chattanooga. The third Times article is a letter to the editor arguing against the death penalty in the case of the four black men convicted of raping a white woman, and also arguing against the death penalty in general saying that it is outdated and modern consciousness is shocked by it implementation. The fourth Times article is an editorial denouncing the arrest of Martin Luther King Jr. for the spurious charge of driving in Georgia without a license, even though he possessed an Alabama license at the time of his arrest. The author argues that petty actions such as this one harm the segregationist's case and attract more public sympathy to MLK. The Free Press article is an editorial defending the sentence given to Martin Luther King Jr. after he was arrested in Georgia for driving without a license, writing that the sentence was just and that it was not unusual. The author also criticizes JFK for trying to make a martyr out of King and turning his arrest into a political issue.

November 2, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Times. The article is a letter to the editor in which the author laments the recent criticism she had seen of the black ministers who called for a retrial of the four black men sentenced to death for their rape conviction.

November 3, 1960: There is no material for this date.

November 4, 1960: There are three articles from the Free Press for this date. The first article reports that the Chattanooga Board of Education had until Dec.3, 1960 to file an appeal in the public school integration decision handed down by the Federal Court. The second Free Press article reports that John Kennedy was depicted as "the real friend of the Negro" in a circular printed by the Committee on Political Education of the AFL-CIO and distributed in Negro sections of Chattanooga and other cities. Senator Kennedy was described as the "champion of civil rights for all people". The third Free Press article is an editorial warning readers that Adam Clayton Powell, a black Harlem Congressman and "race agitator" as the author describes him, was set to become the chairman of the House Education and Labor Committee in the new Congress. The author describes Powell's agenda, which included more Federal intervention in public education and the establishment of the Fair Employment Practices Commission, which would seek to integrate private business among other things. The author urges readers not to vote in Kennedy, whose platform matched the agenda of Powell.

November 5, 1960: There is no material for this date.

November 6, 1960: There is no material for this date.

November 7, 1960: There is no material for this date.

November 8, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Free Press. The article is a letter to the editor supporting the death penalty for the four black men convicted of rape, and denying that race had anything to do with the severity of the penalty.

November 9, 1960: There is no material for this date.

November 10, 1960: There are three articles for this date, one from the Times and two from the Free Press. The first Free Press article is an editorial commenting on the lighter side of the 1960 presidential campaign. The second Free Press article reports that the city school board took two steps in connection with the integration suit in court in which it was the defendant. The board instructed counsel to prepare a written opinion as to the advisability of immediate appeal of the decision by Federal Judge Leslie Darr, and instructed the staff to prepare alternative plans that would comply with the U.S. Supreme Court's decisions "in a manner consistent with the public interest, the efficient operation of the schools, and the maintenance of sound educational principles in our school system." The Times article reports on the school board actions described in the second Free Press article.

November 11, 1960: There are two articles for this date, on from the Times and one from the Free Press. The Times article reports that the Alton Park Mothers Civic Organization deposited $116.16 in the Hamilton National Bank to be paid for information leading to the arrest and conviction of those guilty in bombings in Chattanooga during July and August. The Free Press article reports the same story as the Times article regarding the upping of the reward for the bombers.

November 12, 1960: There is no material for this date.

November 13, 1960: There are two articles for this date both from the Times. The first article reports that the city school board discussed publicly for the first time since Judge Leslie Darr's decision some of the problems involved in determining what its next step should be in the integration suit. It was the start of what apparently is a program the board is embarking on in a bid for community understanding in the hopes that it will lead to community support. The second article is an editorial commenting on the showdown about to take place between the Federal Government, specifically the Eisenhower Administration, and the Governor of Louisiana, over his shut down of the New Orleans school system because of the desegregation decision.

November 14, 1960: There are three articles from the Free Press for this date. The first article is an editorial which calls for respect and admiration for the person of John F Kennedy, President-Elect, and the office he would hold. The author does urge his readers and all other conservative Americans to resist the unwise policies that Kennedy ran on and that he would implement as President. The second article is an editorial lamenting the fact that southerners continued to vote Democratic in the previous election, even though the Democrats were already planning to pass radical, anti-south legislation once the new Congress was convened in 1961. The third article is an editorial calling for a kind of GI Bill, but on a local and state level, and to be used for primary, not college education. The plan would be used by southerners or others, who didn't want their children to attend integrated schools, and they could apply their state and local government credits towards the tuition of whichever school they wanted to send their children to.

November 15, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Free Press. The article reports that across America since World War 2 and up to 1960 when the article was published, more and more parents had decided to send their children to private schools, meaning in the context of this article a school not associated with either then public school system or the Catholic School system. The author of the article gives many reasons for this trend, the prospect of integration among them.

November 16, 1960: There is no material for this date.

November 17, 1960: There are three articles for this date, two from the Free Press and one from the Times. The first Free Press article is an editorial that condemns the violence that was breaking out in New Orleans as a result of the forced integration of its public schools. The author uses this violence to call on Chattanoogans to respond, when the time came for Chattanooga schools to be integrated, with order and nonviolence, arguing that just even though the federal order to integrate the schools was wrong and unconstitutional, violence was not the way to right that wrong. The second Free Press article reports that "Brother Dave" Gardner, a guest seen often on the Jack Paar show over NBC-TV, left Chattanooga Friday for Auburn, Ala., where he was to give a performance. The Times article reports that the Board of Trustees of the University of Tennessee voted to admit qualified black undergraduate students effective with the winter quarter beginning in January.

November 18, 1960: There is no material for this date.

November 19, 1960: There are two articles from the Free Press for this date. The article is an editorial which argues that the electors for southern states should have withheld their votes in the Presidential election of 1960, thereby making it essential for any candidate to seek southern support if they were to win an election victory. This would give the south a big bargaining chip and would help, according to this author, roll back the "damage" that the Warren Court's segregation decision and progressive civil rights legislation had done to the south, in terms of their traditions and their political power and prestige. The author also argues that the integration court decision and many of the civil rights and anti-segregation laws were unconstitutional. The author also believes that Kennedy could have been denied his election victory if Georgia, Louisiana, and Arkansas had withheld their electoral votes, and were joined by two other electors from a southern state. The second article is a letter to the editor arguing that the national Democratic Party was the party of expediency, and that the major leaders in the party all changed their principles to suit the political needs of the moment. The author praises Tennesseans for voting Republican and going for Nixon in the Nov. 8th election, and sees this as a stand by citizens of the state for morality and rightness.

November 20, 1960: There are three articles from the Times and one from the Free Press for this date. The first Times article is an editorial praising the decision made by the University of Tennessee Board of Trustees to open up undergraduate enrollment to black students seeking a higher education. The editorial writer argues that the university was wise in not challenging integration with a court case that was very likely to be decided against segregation, and that the expansion of admission to all citizens of the state would be a good investment in the future of Tennessee and good for the university in the long run. The second Times article reports that an 80 year old white woman who lived alone in a small orth Chattanooga house, reported to police that a Black man broke into the three-room dwelling, raped her several times and held her prisoner for almost four hours as he tortured her into disclosing the hiding place of her life savings of $2449. A little less than two hours after the victim told her story to police authorities, Homicide Detective Pat Rowe tracked down and captured a suspect, a 23 year old black man who lived in North Chattanooga near the home of the victim. The suspect admitted to breaking into the woman's house and robbing her, but denied the assault and rape. The third Times article is a letter to the editor commenting on the recent rape conviction of four black youths and their subsequent death sentences. The Free Press article reports that the UT Board of Trustees had adopted a policy of racial integration at all levels of the university.

November 21, 1960: There are four articles and one political cartoon for this date all from the Free Press. The first article reports that an 80 year old woman who lived alone had her North Chattanooga house broken into by, and was raped more than once, and then beaten and tortured into disclosing the whereabouts of her life savings, some $2449. The suspect was a 23 year old black man who was arrested around two hours after the victim reported the crime to police. The suspect was being held without bail in the city jail for a preliminary hearing that was set for Nov. 30. The second article is an editorial praising the quick and thorough work by Chattanooga police detectives in the apprehension of a man suspected of raping and robbing an 80 year old woman. The author also points out that the effective police work would serve as a warning and deterrent to would be law breakers. The third article is an editorial that comments on the frustration experienced by a five man delegation representing the Louisiana Legislature when they called on a representative of President Elect Kennedy. The author of the editorial points out that the delegation shouldn't have been surprised that they were met with a harsh reception, as Kennedy had supported a more active Federal role in integration and civil rights all through the campaign. The author also bemoans the unconstitutionality of the Warren Court integration decision and fears that the Federal Government's involvement in integration may lead to an ever more powerful dictatorial Federal Government from which states and citizens had no protection or legal recourse. The fourth article is a letter to the editor in which the author urges the Chattanooga School Board, specifically its counsel Raymond Witt, to challenge the public school integration ruling on the grounds that the 14th Amendment was unconstitutional. The letter writer then gives several legal opinions backing up the his argument that the 14th Amendment was not constitutional. The cartoon shows an enthusiastic bespectacled man waving a flag in one hand and the Bill of Rights in the other. The man is wearing a suit and bowtie, and seems to be jumping up on down on the Bill of Rights very enthusiastically. The man's shirt is labeled "Political Liberals", and at the top of the cartoon is the caption "If One Article Can Be Destroyed, All Can Be".

November 22, 1960: There are three articles for this date, two from the Times and one from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that the 23 year old man accused of raping and robbing an 80 year old woman in her North Chattanooga home was being held without bail in the city jail until his preliminary hearing set for Nov. 30. The second Times article is an editorial commenting on an study titled "Racial Violence and Law Enforcement", put out by the Southern Regional Council of Atlanta. The study examines the disorder that erupted in Chattanooga in February 1960 as a result of sit-in demonstrations by black youth at lunch counters in downtown Chattanooga. The study concludes that Chattanooga police delayed too long in acting to control the disorder surrounding the demonstrations, usually figuring out out the right tactics a day too late. Once the police did act however, their actions were correct and effective, leading to a mostly peaceful resolution to the disorder, and few if any claims fo police brutality. The author of the Times editorial differs with the author of the study on a few points, but praises that Chattanooga police for the way they handled the racial turmoil. The Free Press article reports that the city school board's counsel submitted conflicting opinions on whether to appeal the recent decision of Federal Judge Leslie Darr that called for the presentation of a desegregation plan by Dec. 20.(1960) City Attorney Joe W. Anderson and Assistant City Attorney Alex Meachem rendered an opinion that an appeal would not be advisable and recommended the prepartaion of a plan or plans for presentation on Dec.20. Attornet Raymond Witt, who was also vice chairman of the school board, rendered a decision that he felt an appeal was in order. The deadline for an appeal was Dec. 2.

November 23, 1960: There are four articles for this date, one from Three from the Times, and one from the Free Press. The first Times article is an editorial commenting on the migration of blacks, and to a lesser extent whites from their homelands of the south to the big cities of the north. The authro uses Booker T. Washington, and his warning to blacks of his time that they would not be welcomed or understood in the north, to make the case that both blacks and whites should stay in the south and make their native lands better through their work and improvements. The second Times article reports tht Commissioner Dunlap took sharp issue with the Southern Regional Council report by George McMillan on the racial disorders in Chattanooga in February (1960). Dunlap contended that, contrary to the council report, the (Chattanooga Police) department had made careful plans for months in advance to deal with racial disturbances. He contended that contrary to the report, the responsible officials were fully aware of the gravity of the situation from the beginning. The third Times article reports that the city school board was to meet Nov. 25 to consider conflciting recommendations from their attorneys on whether to appeal the integration decision of Judge Leslie Darr. The Free Press article is an editorial commenting on the school board's debate about whether or not to appeal the Federal Court decision ordering Chattanooga schools to present a plan for integratin by Dec. 20. The author argues that although any appeal would be unlikely to gain ultimate victory, a decision allowing the maintenence of segregation in Chattanooga Public Schools, the appeal should be made to delay the integration of schools for as long as possible.

November 24, 1960: There is no material for this date.

November 25, 1960: There is one article for this date, one from the Times and one from the Free Press. The Free Press article reports that the city school board this afternoon was expected to reach a decision on whether or not to appeal Federal Judge Darr's Nov. 3 decision calling for the presentation of a desegregation plan for city schools by Dec. 20.

November 26, 1960: There are three articles for this date, one from the Times and two from the Free Press. The Times article reports that the Chattanooga Board of Education in a two hour closed door session authorized its attorneys to prepare and file a motion for a discretionary appeal with the local federal court. The first Free Press article is an editorial that praises the Chattanooga School Board for its decision to appeal the integration ruling of the local federal court, but acknowledges that the despite the appeal the schools will ultimately be integrated, the result of what the author describes as "Federal might crushing constitutional right". The second Free Press reports on the school board decsion to appeal the integration ruling of the local federal court.

November 27, 1960: There are three articles from the Times for this date. The first article reports on both the decision of the school board to appeal a federal court decision on integration, and the release of a report on violence in southern cities, including Chattanooga, as a result of racial turmoil. The author connects these two issues and brings up the case of New Orleans, where a fired up governor and legislator, after being ordered by a federal court to integrate New Orleans schools, inspired mob violence. The reporter sees integration in Chattanooga as inevitable, and asks whether it will be acheived with or without the kind of violence that had accompanied it in New Orleans and other southern cities. The second Times article reports that arguments on motions for a new trial by four young black men sentenced to death by electrocution for raping a 17 year old white girl in August were passed until Dec. 12 by Judge Campbell Carden. The third Times article is an editorial commenting on the appeal decision of the school board, arguing that the appeal is worthy if there are substantial points of law that still needed to be brought to light in court, but not if the appeal was simply a tactic to delay integratio for as long as possible.

November 28, 1960: There are three articles from the Free Press for this date. The first article reports that City Attorney Joe W. Anderson said he would be unable to argue the school board's position in the event that it should appeal Federal Judge Leslie Darr's decision to the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals in Cincinnati. Anderson recommended against appeal as one of the school board's counsel. The second Free Press article is an editorial criticizing the recent report put out by Eisenhower's Commission on National Goals. The report called for many programs but all the editorial author saw was more centralized government power backed by a higher burden of taxation on the populace. The author also mentions education and calls for completely local control of schools and the way they were run, including segregation. The third article is a letter to the editor criticizing Federal court decisions on integration arguing that they were unconstiutional, and praising another letter the editor expressing the same point of view.

November 29, 1960: There are two articles for this date, one from the Times and one from the Free Press. The Times article reports that the Chattanooga Board of Education formally moved for U.S. District Judge Leslie R. Darr's approval of an appeal to the Sixth U.S. Circuit of Appeals of his order in the school integration case. The Free Press article reports the same story as the Times article for this date.

November 30, 1960: There are four articles for this date, one from the Times and three from the Free Press. The Times article reports that the "elucidation plan" which the Chattanooga Board of Education says it relied upon as reason for continuing present biracial school policies was, for all practical purposes, stripped from the law suit by Judge Leslie Darr. The first Free Press article reports that the 23 year old black man accused of raping, robbing, beating and torturing an 80 year old white woman in North Chattanooga on Nov. 19 was ordered held for a grand jury investigation after a preliminary hearing in city court on this date. The second Free Press article is an editorial

December 1, 1960: There are two articles from the Free Press for this date. The first reports that the city school board would appeal a federal integration ruling. The second article is an editorial linking school integration court decisions to a ever increasing power on the part of the federal government and a steady loss of freedoms.

December 2, 1960: There are eight articles for this date, three from the Times and five from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that the schoold board would appeal the federal court decision on integration of Chattanooga public schools. The second Times article reports that a copyright suit had been dropped by two warring factions of the Ku Klux Klan. The third Times article is and editorial commenting on a decision by a three judge Federal court in New Orleans striking down a legal theory termed interposition, by which a state interposes its powers between the Supreme Court and the citizens affected. The Louisiana legislature had attempted this when it passed several laws in an attempt to block the forced integration of its public schools. The first Free Press article is a letter to the editor written by a teenager urging other youth to be more aware of the dangers presented by communism and to learn about the conservative political ideology. The second Free Press article is an editorial praising a letter to the editor written by a teenage conservative. The third Free Press article reports on the dropped suit between two rival Klan organizations described in the second Times article for this date. The fourth Free Press article is an editorial praising the school board for its decision to appeal the federal court integration ruling. The fifth Free Press article is and editorial reminding readers that freedom of choice is a two way street, and using the story of a Reverend in New Orleans who chose to send his daughter to an integrated shchool to illustrate the point.

December 3, 1960: There are six articles for this date, three from the Times and three from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that the Chattanooga Board of Education filed a notice of appeal to Judge Leslie Darr's decision ordering the schoold board to have a plan for integration prepared by Dec. 20. The second Times article reports that M.J. Jones, speaking on behalf of the Interdeonominational Ministerial Alliance and the Pioneer Business League, both black organizations, questioned the sincerity of the school board's appeal, speculating that it was filed just to delay integration for as long as possible. The third Times article is an editorial that worries about the recently released crime date showing that violent crime in Chattanooga was up substantially during the first nine months of 1960 in Chattanooga. The First Free Press article is an editorial predicting that with more and more court rulings madating integration, federal courts would use the "expanded" power they had gained to regulate ever more aspects of people's lives and that freedom would be greatly diminished. The second Free Press article reports that M.J. Jones, a black leader in Chattanooga, said that the city school board was risking a "resevoir of good will" with its appeal of a federal integration decision. The third Free Press article is a letter to the editor in which the author argues for segregation, using the Bible to back up her argument.

December 4, 1960: There is no material for this date.

December 5, 1960: There is no material for this date.

December 6, 1960: There are two articles from the Free Press for this date. The first article is an editorial criticizing the Earl Warren led Supreme Court for its decision ordering the integration of restaurants at interstate bus stops. The author of the editorial condemns the decision as unconstitutional because, even though the Federal Government has a right to regulate interstate commerce, the restaurants were still private property that the court had no right to tamper with. The second article is an editorial criticizing New Orleans Mayor deLesseps S. Morrison for suggesting a three day blackout on news coverage of the school integration situation in New Orleans.

December 7, 1960: There is no material for this date.

December 8, 1960: There are six articles for this date, one from the Times and five from the Free Press. The Times article reports that the city school board voted to request U.S. District Judge Leslie R. Darr to stay his order calling for the board to submit a desegregation plan by Dec. 20. The first Free Press article reports the same vote by the school board as the Times article for this date. The second Free Press article is a letter to the editor criticizing southern politicians for supporting liberal national Democrats even though these same politicians have none of theri interests in mind. The third Free Press article is a letter to the editor arguing for segregation and using the Bible to back up the argument. The fourth Free Press article is a letter to the editor defending segregation using the Bible and condemning white preachers in New Orleans for sending their children to integrated schools there. The fifth Free Press article reports that Marting Luther King Jr. was to visit Chattanooga in December, to address a rally of black people at a church on Dec. 30.

December 9, 1960: There are three articles from the Times for this date. The first article reports that Raymond B. Witt Jr., vice chairman and chief counsel for the board of education, filed in U.S. District Court a motion to stay enforcement of an order to present a plan for desegregation of the city' schools by Dec. 20. The second article reports that Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. would give a talk in Chattanooga on the night of Dec. 30, though the site had not yet been selected. The third article reports that R.H. Craig, 65, prominent Chattanooga attorney active at the bar in Chattanooga for 30 years and counsel for the black children suing the Chattanooga Board of Education for school integration, died in Murfreesboro, TN.

December 10, 1960: There are three articles for this date, one from the Times and two from the Free Press. The Times article is a letter to the editor beseeching Chattanoogans and Americans to accept segregation and the Biblical golden rule, so as to live up America's claim as a democratic nation. The first Free Press article is an editorial praising the opinion of a Washington State Supreme Court Justice who warned of the dangers of a minority becoming tyrannical in its actions and demands. The second Free Press article is an editorial promoting free enterprise and expressing pride at the label "Bible Belt".

December 11, 1960: There is no material for this date.

December 12, 1960: There is one article from the Free Press for this date. The article reports that two black men from Atlanta were arrested in Chattanooga on technical vagrancy charges after city police received a complaint from a Greyhound bus driver.

December 13, 1960: There are three articles for this date, one from the Times, and one from the Free Press. The Times article reports that twenty or more masked and hooded Klu Klux Klansmen went to the Dinkler-Plaza Hotel in Atlanta, rode to the sky room and seated themselves comfortably, masks and hoods still in place. The first Free Press article is an editorial that complains about a case where the Warren Court intervened overturning a state law aimed at curbing the influence of the NAACP. The second Free Press article is an editorial condemning the bombing of a black school in Atlanta.

December 14, 1960: There are four articles for this date, three from the Times and one from the Free Press. The frist Times article reports that objections to suspending the order calling for the submission of a plan to integrate the Chattanooga public schools were made by attorneys for the four black children who were in Federal court in Chattanooga asking for an integration program. The Chattanooga Board of education through its general counsel Raymond Witt filed a motion to suspend the Nov. 3 order of US District Judge Leslie Darr in which he directed the city agency to submit the plan of desegregation on or before Dec. 20, and set a hearing for Jan. 9, 1961. The second Times article is an editorial praising Mayor of Atlanta William Hartsfield for his severe condemnation of the recent bombing of a black elementary school in his city. The editorial writer calls on the citizenry of Atlanta to match in deed their Mayor's words and to stop turning their heads in indifference to racially motivated violence in their city when it occured. The third Times article reports that William C. Young, a 23 year old black man, suspected in the rape, torture and theft of $2500 from an 80 year old white woman, was indicted on rape and burglary charges. The Free Press article also reports on the indictment of William Young for rape and burglary.

December 15, 1960: There are six articles for this date, five from the Times, and one from the Free Press. The first article is an editorial praising the statements of one hundred business and professional men from New Orleans, who gathered to announce that they accepted the various court rulings regarding segregation, and that they would support the integation of the city schools and urged others to accept this fact as well and not interfere with the transition do integration. The second Times article reports that the Chattanooga Board of Education would have a desegregation plan to present to the U.S. District Court in Chattanooga by Dec. 20. The third Times article reports that the cityh school board announced that Chattanooga High School would open as usual in the next school year. The announcement was made to clarify rumors and misunderstandings that had developed around the possibility that the school would be moved to North Chattanooga and the old building would be turned into a black high school. The fourth Times article reports that the city school board had denied Martin Luther King Jr. permission to speak in the auditorium of Howard High School while he was in Chattanooga Dec. 30, 1960. The board defended its decision saying that King's appearance did not meet the requirements, educational, civi, or charitable, needed to allow a person or group to speak in a public school facility. The board's decision sparked a protest by local black community leaders. The fifth Times article is a letter to the editor in which the author criticizes Marting luther King Jr., basically calling him an agitator, and arguing that he was trying to stir up trouble. The author also claims that the actions of King got caused many good black people to suffer, and claims King wanted to be a martyr. The Free Press article is a letter to the editor in which the author expresses his racist views about black people and states his case for the continuation of segregation.

December 16, 1960: There are two articles for this date, one from the Times and on from the Free Press. The Times article reports that Judge Campbell Carden overruled new trial motions for four young black men convicted of raping a 17 year old white girl and sentenced to die by electrocution. The Judge also revealed that he had receieved threats on his life since the trial in late October of 1960. The Judge rejected the arguments presented by the attorneys for the condemned men saying that he saw no valid reason for a new trial. The Free Press article reports on the same story, the ruling of Judge Carden not to grant a new trial to the four condemned black men.

December 17, 1960: There is no material for this date.

December 18, 1960: There are four articles for this date, one from the Free Press and three from the Times. The Free Press article is a letter to the editor in which the author, a University of Chattanooga student, bemoans the fact that both Tennessee Senators were doing nothing to stand up to the "usurping" Supreme Court. He praises Senators Harry Byrd and Barry Goldwater as the only two Senators who were standing up to the Supreme Court, trying to protect the "freedom" of southerners and their right to segregate black people from whites. The first Times article is an editorial beseeching the Chattanooga community to come together and make the transition to integrated schools as easy and peaceful as possible in light of the ruling rejecting the board's attempt at delaying the presentation of a plan to desegregate. The second Times article is an editorial criticizing Governor Patterson of Alabama who had recently stated rather boldly that Alabama would never desegregate its schools. The author points out that the doctrine of interposition, in which a state government interposes itself between the federal government and the people of the state, had been soundly defeated, there was no way Patterson could resist the lawful orders of the federal government, pointing out the ultimate futility of resistance. The third Times article is an editorial analyzing some of the issues of the 1960 Presidential Election, and some of the possible reasons that the black vote went so overwhelmingly for Kennedy and against Nixon.

December 19, 1960: There is no material for this date.

December 20, 1960: There are two articles from the Free Press for this date. The first article reports that Memorial Auditorium was selected as the site where Martin Luther King Jr. would speak when he visited Chattanooga on Dec. 30, 1960. The site was chosen becasue the school board refused permission for King to speak at the auditorium of Howard High. The second article reports that the Chattanooga school board proposed to begin limited integration in the first three grades of the city school system at the start of the 1962-63 school year. Selected schools that were to be desegregated would be announced by Oct. 1, 1961.

December 21, 1960: There are seven articles for this date, four from the Times and three from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that Chattanooga Board of Education would begin limited integration of the first three grades by the 1962-63 school year, with the schools to be integrated announced by Oct.1, 1961. The second Times article reprints in full the school board plan for desegregation. The third Times article is an editorial giving a mixed review of the desegregation plan put out by the board of education. The fourth Times article reports that five white youths were reported beaten in attacks by a roving band of black teenagers in incidents stretching over two nights. The first Free Press article reports that the Rev. William A. Dennis, a black pastor of the Orchard Knob Baptist Church, was arrested for loitering at a Greyhound bus station. The second Free Press article laments the fact that Vice President Elect Lyndon Johnson's first major assignment by Kennedy was to the chairmanship of a Committe on Governmental Contracts, which would require racial integration in private businesses dealing with the Federal Government. The author of the editorial calls Johnson's chairmanship of this committee "painfully ironic" because he was a southerner, and put on the ticket to attract southern votes. The third Free Press article is an editorial analyzing the plan for desegregation put out by the board of education. The author concludes that plan is reasonable given the circumstances facing the school board, and arguing that they basically made the best out of a really bad situation.

December 22, 1960: There are three articles from the Free Press for this date. The first article reports that a man who was arrested on Dec. 11 for tailgating a Greyhound bus was fined $50 in city court. The second article is an editorial discussing the pros and cons of consolidating the city and county school systems, ultimately concluding that it was a matter for lengthy consideration and should wait until the integration issues got resolved in the city schoolk system. The third article is an editorial condemning the actions of three federal judges who made several rulings regarding school integration and related issues in Lousiana and New Orleans. The author accuses the judges of usurping state and local authority and argues that their actions set a dangerous precedent.

December 23, 1960: There are six articles for this date, five from the Free Press and one from the Times. The Times article reports that an Atlanta man was fined $50 for wreckless driving charges that stemmed out of a complain that he followed a Greyhound bus too closely from Atlanta to Chattanooga. The first Free Press article reports that a 23 year old black man indicted for raping an 80 year old white woman was recommitted to the grand jury because there was an error in the date on the original indictment. The second Free Press article reports that U.S. District Judge Leslie Darr ordere a pre-trial conference Jan. 3, 1961, in the school desegregation case. The third Free Press article reports that the incident which resulted in the arrest for loitering of Rev. William A. Dennis occured at the Trailways bus depot not at the Greyhound station as previously reported. The fourth Free Press article is a letter to the editor comparing the state of white people in the south to that of subject peoples trapped behind the iron curtain. According to thiks letter writer, not being able to legally downgrade black people into a status of second class citizenship is tantamount to the shredding of the constitution and a loss of freedom, not to mention a democratic way of life. The fifth article is an editorial praising a federal judge for upholding racism and segregated employment practices.

December 24-27: There is no material for this date.

December 28, 1960: There are seven articles for this date, one from the Times and six from the Free Press. The Times article reports that the Chattanooga Board of Education asked that the Jan. 9 hearing on its school integration plan be postponed until February. The first Free Press article reports the board of education's request for a delay in the Jan. 9 hearing on its school integration plan. The second Free Press article is an editorial praises the ruling of the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals made upholding a restaurant owner's right to select his customers regardless of color. The third Free Press article is a letter to the editor complaining about the city letting Marting Luther King Jr. use Memoiral Auditorium to promote his "racial agitation". The fourth Free Press article is a letter to the editor criticizing JFK for appointing his brother Robert Kennedy Attorney General. The fifth Free Press article is a letter to the editor supporting segregation in the public schools. The sixth Free Press article is a letter to the editor condemning the actions of the Supreme Court in regards to segregation and other civil rights issues.

December 29, 1960: There are two articles from the Free Press for this date. The first article is an editorial questioning the motives of black tenant farmers who were suing their employers for unfair termination. The second article is a letter to the editor criticizing the city commission for letting Marting Luther King Jr. speak at the Memorial Auditorium during his visit to Chattanooga on Dec. 30.

December 30, 1960: There are four articles for this date, two from the Times and two from the Free Press.

December 31, 1960: There five articles for this date, three from the Times and two from the Free Press, mostly dealing with the visit of Marting Luther King Jr. to Chattanooga on Dec. 30.
Date 1960
Dates of Creation 08/01/1960 - 12/31/1960
Extent of Description 15.50" x 13.25" x 1.50"
Lexicon category 8: Communication Artifact
Lexicon sub-category Documentary Artifact
Accession number 1998.080