Archive Record

Object Name Scrapbook
Catalog Number 1998.080.371
Collection Hamilton County Department of Education Collection
Description Red and gold scrapbook. Contains newspaper articles about Chattanooga public schools and focus on school desegregation. The articles are from the Chattanooga News Free Press and the Chattanooga TImes. Dates of articles are March through October 1956. Stickers on pages list the dates of the articles. Scrapbook held together by cord. Articles are glued onto pages.

March 28, 1956: Source: "Nashville Banner" Article: "Desegregation Delay Ok'd" Details the decision of a federal court to delay the submission of a desegregation plan by the Nashville city school board. Editorial: "Court Rules for Reason" applauds the decision to delay the desegregation plan.
March 29, 1956. Article: "Race Decision Off Till Fall at Nashville." Details the decision of a federal court to delay the submission of a desegregation plan by the Nashville city school board. Three Letters to the Editor: "Third Party" by W. B. Chilton passionately curses the democrats under President Truman and calls for a third party. "Guidance Clinic" by "Another Former Contributor to the Community Chest" applauds a previous letter to the editor for notifying them about the clinic's integration stance. "A Peck of Apples" by Mrs. Causby promotes the "separate but equal" ideal. Editorial: "No New Money for Desegregation" rejects the plan by the city school board to request a million-dollar bond issue for school construction.
March 30, 1956. Article: "Ivins Opposes School Mixing." Details the decision by sheriff candidate Clay Ivins to announce his rejection of desegregation policies. Article: "Segregation Meet Tonight." Briefly details an organizational meeting of the Tennessee Society to Maintain Segregation in East Lake. Article: "Membership Drive Plan of States Rights Council." Details the plans of the States Rights Council of Tennessee to hold a membership drive in support of a third party presidential candidate. Six Letters to the Editor: "Racial Answer" by "For Good Will" challenges Rev. William Dennis' letter to the editor saying Christian life after death is the only true source of integration. "Try Another State" by James C. White encourages those who don't like how TN does things to move to another state. "Against Mixing" by "A Southerner" uses a statement by a Texas minister as justification for segregation. "Rev. Dennis Answered" by Oliver L. M'Keehan disagrees with Rev. William Dennis' letter to the editor and supports segregation. "TSMS Defended" by Nathan B. Forrest agrees with segregationist groups. "On Segregation" by "A PTA Member" rallies against people who claim that PTA groups have no say in school desegregation.
March 31, 1956. Editorial: "The School Program" compliments the city and school board's gradual 6 million dollar school improvements and endorses the request for an additional1 million dollar building bond.
April 1, 1956. Article: "City School Board Defers Integration By At Least 5 Years." Details the city school board's decision to delay school desegregation. Includes full text of the decision.
April 2, 1956. Article: "School Board Under Attack." Details the reaction from the NAACP and a segregationist group regarding the school board's decision. Includes full text of segregationist group's statement. Editorial: "While Turmoil Reigns" approves of the school board's decision to allow a "cooling off" of overwrought emotions. Article: "School Board Delays Mixing Action in City." Details the city school board's decision to delay school desegregation and reaction to that decision. Three Letters to the Editor: "O'Dell Supported" by Ray Clinton encourages voters to vote for Otis O'Dell. "N-FP Criticized" by "A Housewife, Teacher, and Mother" takes the newspaper to task for perpetuating the myth of a South unified against desegregation. "Anti-U.S. Conspiracy" by R. C. Owens draws parallels between communism and the desegregation movement. Article: "2 Groups Rap School Board Mixing Views." Details the reaction from the NAACP and a segregationist group regarding the school board's decision. Incomplete article. Editorial: "Skirmish Won- Battle Just Begun" expresses concerns over what the school board's decision means for desegregation in the future. Letter to the Editor: "Original Citizens" by John Lightfoot, a Native American, provides a view of segregating to strengthen the power of the minority.
April 3, 1956. Editorial: "Don't Forget Public Opinion" notes the withdraw by the city school board of a request for a 1-million dollar building bond and public opposition it . Editorial: "'Handwriting on the Wall'" notes with alarm a desegregation follow up ruling from a school in Hillsboro, Ohio that sped up their integration. Article: "City Council of PTA Blocks Racial Ballot." Details the denial of the city council of PTAs to hold a vote on desegregation, instead they created a special committee to investigate if they could. Article: "County PTA's 200 to 1 for Segregation." Details the results of a survey of county PTAs that serve white students regarding their position on desegregation. Two Letters to the Editor: "Bible Dispute" by L. B. D. vigorously denies that the Bible supports racial segregation. "State Questioned" by John G. White considers moving back to Tennessee to fight against desegregation.
April 4, 1956. Article: "City PTA to Seek Ruling on Bylaw." Details the denial of the city council of PTAs to hold a vote on desegregation, instead they created a special committee to investigate if they could. Article: "Hamilton PTA Council Stops Racial Vote." Details the denial of the county council of PTAs to hold a vote on desegregation, but taking it under consideration. Article: "O'Dell Backs Segregation." Details the reiteration by candidate Otis O'Dell of his views on segregation and recent actions surrounding it. Article: "What Is 'Interposition'? Can It Protect South Against Threat of Integration?" by constitutional law professor Clarence Manion details the constitutional rights of the states to reject Supreme Court decisions that superceded state rights. Article: "Chattanooga NAACP Criticizes School Board." Details the issuing of a statement by the NAACP against the Chattanooga school board's decision to delay implementation school desegregation. Full text of statement presented. Article: "J. B. Ragon Announces State Senate Candidacy." Details the candidacy announcement by J. B. Ragon for state senate. Full text of statement presented. Article: "Racial Issue Splits Union." Details the presentation and blocking of a resolution disagreeing with the pro-integration position taken by the CIO-AFL by the local Communications Workers of America. Full text of resolution presented. Letter to the Editor: "PTA Meetings" by Mrs. E. V. Kendrick admonishes the progressive politics that are being played out in PTA groups and school boards.
April 5, 1956. Editorials: "Labor Bosses Fight Segregation" presents a survey that shows how southern unions leaders disagree with their national union leaders over desegregation. "Tennessee Should Join Them" describes why interposition is a legitimate response to the Supreme Court desegregation ruling. Three Letters to the Editor: "Racial Issue" by O. John challenges those who use the Bible for justifying racial segregation. "Why Force Others?" by "Father and Taxpayer" disagrees with a previous pro-desegregation letter to the editor. "No Southerner" by Jacob H. Frazier lambastes a previous pro-segregation letter to the editor. Editorial: The Herald Speaks from The Hamilton County Herald, "Interposition" discusses historical use of interposition and its justification in the Supreme Court desegregation rule.
April 6, 1956. Three Letters to the Editor: "City School Board" by "A Doubting Thomas" questions why the school board changed its mind about implementing desegregation. "Count Your Blessings" by D. D. M. Jr, an 11th grade student, challenges a previous letter to the editor written by an African American high school student. "Writer on His Own" by Mrs. Lois G. Key disclaims the letter to the editor written by D. D. M. Jr saying his opinions do not reflect those of the school he belongs to.
April 7, 1956. Editorial: "Union Integration" decries the possibility of Chattanooga teachers becoming unionized. Article: "Witt, Wilkerson Defeats Significant in Primary." Details the loss of Raymond Witt and Will Wilkerson, two integration supporters, in local primary elections. Letter to the Editor: "PTA vs Rights" by Jeb Stewart claims desegregationists only want votes that support their agenda. Three Letters to the Editor: "Manion Challenged" by H. J. Denton questions the Supreme Court's ability to change it's initial Plessy v. Ferguson decision with Brown v. Board of Education. "For Integration" by Edgar E. Jones commends the people who write letters to the editor in support of desegregation. "For Segregation" by "A Solid Southerner" disagrees with a previous pro-integration letter to the editor, telling them to move to the north.
April 8, 1956. Editorial: "School Board Vulnerable in Legislative Campaign" details concerns that legislation establishing local school boards could be threatened in reaction to desegregation concerns. Letter to the Editor: "School Board's Decision" by Anne Brien encourages the school board to spend the years that desegregation is on hold to educate and communicate with both races and both sides of the issue.
April 9, 1956. Editorial: "It Provided No Leadership" decries the lack of leadership coming from a public education conference which didn't address the desegregation issue. "Chipping Away Our Freedom" equates mandated school desegregation with compulsory unionism in a union shop. Three Letters to the Editor: "City PTA Council" by Raymond Lawrence decries how local PTA groups are not allowing votes on desegregation. "Racial Issue" by Mrs. J. G. Taylor claims nowhere in the Bible does it say that all men are equal. "For Integration" by J. A. Abston urges southerners to judge a man by his character not his skin color.
April 10, 1956. Article: "Equal Civil Rights Sought in Program of Administration." Details the request by the Eisenhower administration to create a federal civil rights commission and civil rights division within the Justice Department. Presents full text of submission letter and the two proposed bills. Article: "Civil Rights Bill Chances Termed Slim." Details the status of Congress as it relates to the passing of proposed civil rights protections. Notes actions in several Southern towns. Letter to the Editor: "Rights Abridged" by P. W. Stonestreet notes that the Supreme Court is not infallible. Editorial: "Block the 'Civil Rights' Program" claims there are already enough protections for civil rights without the institutionalizing of new civil rights section. Two Letters to the Editor: "The Way Cleared?" by J. I. J. sees conspiracies in local school board that favor desegregation. "Racial Issue" by "Let's Keep It" rejects previous letters to the editor and claims there are Bible-based reasons for segregation.
April 11, 1956. Article: "E. Chattanooga PTA Favors Segregation." Details the pro-segregation vote by a city PTA group and its justifications. Editorial: "Who Has It Better?" wants the city PTA groups to be able to vote about school desegregation. Four Letters to the Editor: "PTA Poll Cited" by Tom A. Hawk disagrees with a previous letter to the editor that was pro-integration. "Racial Discussion" by B. L. B. supposes that African Americans who move north will be surprised by the discrimination they face there. "Revisers Beware" by Paul B. Stahr bemoans people who try to revise the Constitution and Bible to suit their needs. "On Racial Issue" by T. L. Mitchell expresses concern over "creeping judicialism" of Supreme Court.
April 12, 1956. Editorial: "Let Teachers Feel Free to Speak" expresses concerns that teachers might feel threatened about speaking their beliefs about desegregation, especially at PTA meetings. Three Letters to the Editor: "School Problem" by "For States Rights" proposes that African Americans be exempt from paying taxes so that school could legitimately stay segregated. "Changes Opinion" by "A Converted Reader" thanks the N-FP for adhering to principles and not political convictions. "Student's View" by Lawrence Levan, a junior high student, who promotes segregation in schools.
April 13, 1956. Editorial: "Facts on Reuther and NAACP" presents information about the vice president of the AFL-CIO and contributions to the NAACP, which they disagree with. Three Letters to the Editor: "On Desegregation" by Frank G. Miller, a former Chattanoogan now living in Detroit, gives his opinion about race relations in Detroit. "Rebuttal on Bible" by Edgar E. Jones clarifies his position on desegregation after being challenged by another letter writer. "Bible Quoting" by Frank A. Green encourages calm and rational thinking rather than emotional Bible-thumping with regards to desegregation.
April 14, 1956. Letter to the Editor: "Letter Disputed" by M. Phinney disagrees with a previous letter to the editor about integration in the north.
April 15, 1956. Article: "Shaky Platform" Details the results of the democratic primaries, noting positions on segregation, and determines that only having a pro-segregation platform is not enough to draw in voters and win the election. Four Letters to the Editor: "Race Issue" by "Believer" expounds on why the Bible is appropriate to use to argue against desegregation. "Wake Up, America!" by "An Old-Fashioned American" challenges people to recognize integration as a Communist tool used by Russia to beat the U.S. "Blasts Letter" by O. John takes a previous letter to the editor writer to task for suggesting African Americans not pay taxes in order to get around the desegregation ruling. "For Segregation" by L. J. Rogers rejects a previous letter to the editor that the Bible doesn't support segregation.
April 16, 1956. Editorial: "NAACP Opposes Constitution" claims civil rights legislation supported by the NAACP should be presented in the form of a constitutional amendment rather than legislation. Editorial: "Settle Segregation Issue First" argues against attempts to pass a 12-million dollar school bond issue before the issue of desegregation is settled. "Ducking Responsibility" charges the city council should not desegregate city buses because segregation works.
April 17, 1956. Two Letters to the Editor: "Blasts Letter" by E. R. Evans cites two letters to the editor that he disagrees with that support desegregation. "On PTA Action" by R. L. Lee commends the East Chattanooga PTA for taking a stand against desegregation.
April 18, 1956. Editorial: "Way to Keep Segregated Parks" commends Georgia for taking proactive steps to ensure that state parks remain segregated and encourages Tennessee to do the same. Four Letters to the Editor: "Evolution or ..." by T. L. Mitchell rejects a Sewanee University professor's belief in evolution because of the Bible. "Alabama Praised" by P. W. Stonestreet agrees with the idea of having three schools: white, black, and integrated. "UNESCO Hit" by J. I. J. rejects the idea of a world community as proposed by UNESCO. "Moot Point" by L. B. D. chides people who only see race as there's no way of knowing God's will for mankind.
April 19, 1956. Article: "PTA Student Delegate Prefers Segregation." Details comments made by Jane Loveless, a 16-year old student, while at a TN PTA convention. Article: "Clement Indicates Opposition to State Legislation Seeking to Keep Segregation in Public Schools." Details comments made by Governor Frank Clement at the annual convention of the TN Congress of Parents and Teachers. Article is incomplete. Editorial: "Our Schools Need Protection, Too" rejects Gov. Clement's position that pro-segregation legislation is unwarranted. Three Letters to the Editor: "Sewanee Panel" by Nathan B. Forrest condemns ideas put forth by two Sewanee University professors as heresy. "Kiss Deplored" by Raymond Lawrence decries a television broadcast which featured a white woman kissing a black man. "Negro Speaks" by "A Disgusted Colored Mother" tries to calm white fears by saying she won't be sending her three children to a white school.
April 20, 1956. Three Letters to the Editor: "Few Know Truth" by "An Antiquated Fundamentalist" claims that people only have superficial knowledge of the things they speak about. "Reply to Phinney" by B. L. B. rejects the response by a previous letter to the editor writer concerning his earlier letter. "Bible and Race" by "Reader" pulls Bible passages to prove segregation is ordained by God.
April 21, 1956. Three Letters to the Editor: "On Race Issue" by "A Student of History" pulls part of a speech by Abraham Lincoln that rejects integration. "On Spouting Off" by "States Rights" rejects recent letters to the editor by O. John. "Negroes Prejudiced" by Randolph Magno notes that African Americans have prejudices against whites.
April 25, 1956. Article: "Commission, Transit Line Debate Ruling." Details a planned meeting between city officials and the Southern Coach Lines to discuss city bus operations after segregation of public busses was ruled unconstitutional. Editorial: "Collective Dictatorship" presents a statement by Georgia representative Carl Vinson in which he warns about the slippery slope of federal overreach, as exemplified by the Supreme Court decisions regarding desegregation, and the threat it poises to state rights. "Delay Whenever Possible" approves of the decision by the University of Tennessee trustees to further study desegregation before taking any action on it. "Racial Forum" by Lester H. Butler claims citizens have been betrayed by their elected officials. "For Integration" by Albert Smith questions the rationale of supporters of segregation and hopes things will be better in the future.
April 26, 1956. Article: "Bus Line Told It Must Solve Mixed Seating." Details the position of the Southern Coach Lines regarding desegregated seating on public buses and the conflicting news regarding the recent Supreme Court ruling on it. Article: "Teen-Agers Mill at Negro Dance." Details the actions surrounding a African American dance at Memorial Auditorium and the segregated participation of whites.
April 28, 1956. Letter to the Editor: "9 Men and Chaos" by "Sylvia" an allegedly African American woman writes about how desegregation has ruined race relations.
April 30, 1956. Three Letters to the Editor: "Mitchell Replies" by T. L. Mitchell rejects the contentions of a letter to the editor written by Carl Hendrickson, Jr. earlier. "Lack of Respect" by Mrs. Leona Echols laments that she found two African American girls in her yard taking roses off her rose bush. "For Integration" by E. L. Carter, a high school student, doesn't see the harm in desegregation.
May 1, 1956. Article: "Williams Urges School Racial Issue Be Settled." Details the argument of the Citizens Taxpayers Association that the school board must make a decision about desegregation as new schools are needing to be built.
May 2, 1956. Editorial: "The First Question" agrees with the argument made by the Citizens Taxpayers Association. Two Letters to the Editor: "On Racial Issue" by W. B. Chilton rails against the Supreme Court as usurpers and Kefauver as a betrayer. "For Segregation" by L. J. Rogers makes Bible-based claims for segregation.
May 3, 1956. Editorial: "A Time for Cooperation" argues desegregation is inevitable and the need for new schools unavoidable so people should work together. "Christianity and Segregation" notes the decision of the Methodist Church to desegregate its churches and laments this fact. Two Letters to the Editor: "For Segregation" by E. M. Scott rejects the claim of a previous letter to the editor writer about the benefits of desegregation. "Denies News Report" by L. D. Kravitz rejects the headline used by the newspaper regarding a brawl that broke out at a Kansas City high school baseball game.
May 5, 1956. Three Letters to the Editor: "Powers of the Court" by T. O. Cook poises a number of questions regarding state rights verses federal rights as defined by the Constitution. The editor answers the questions based on his opinion. "For Segregation" by "A Friend to All" claims she is for segregation but does not dislike African Americans. "For Integration" by L. B. D. is confused why America fought wars for the betterment of all but refuses to include African Americans in that mix.
May 7, 1956. Article: "Judge Rules Tennessee Laws on School Segregation Invalid." Details the ruling by TN Judge William Wade that the state's public school segregation laws are invalid but that planned "gradual" desegregation of schools is legitimate. Article: "Negro Drivers Asked on City Bus Routes." Details a meeting of the Chattanooga city bus line and the Nashville Transit Company about its decision to allow African American bus drivers. Editorial: "Plain Enough, Union Members" condemns the AFL-CIO stance that all of its members need to back its pro-integration position.
May 8, 1956. Editorial: "Closer to Home" decries the TN judge's ruling that state school segregation laws are invalid and calls for politicians to resist. Letter to the Editor: "Supreme Court Hit" by Nathan B. Forrest sees a recent racial altercation as evidence that desegregation will foster violence.
May 9, 1956. Two Editorials: "Why Yankees Don't Understand" rejects arguments made by an Oregon newspaper about recent segregationist positions in Alabama." "They're for Integration- Down Here" notes the hypocrisy of a racial incident that happened in the Bronx neighborhood of New York.
May 10, 1956. Two Letters to the Editor: "Common Sense" by J. B. Crutcher decries the use of the Bible by both pro- and anti-segregationists as justification for their stances. "For Segregation" by Mrs. Mary Taylor blames President Eisenhower for appointing Justice Earl Warren to the Supreme Court.
May 12, 1956. Letter to the Editor: "Race Relations" by "Chicagoan" claims Negroes will not be better off in northern cities and they shouldn't leave the South.
May 14, 1956. Letter to the Editor: "For Third Party" by "A third Party Boy" expresses a desire for a third party based on states rights.
May 15, 1956. Two Letters to the Editor: "Asks Freedom" by "Couch-O-Phobe" rejects the position of Dr. Sottong that constructive action regarding desegregation should occur. "On Court Rulings" by Paul E. Hammack proposes that if more cases were appealed then higher courts wouldn't be so progressive.
May 17, 1956. Article: "Anniversary of School Decision Finds U.S. Split." Details the second anniversary of the Brown v. Board decision and the various ways it was being recognized in the South and North. Two Letters to the Editor: "Kefauver Rapped" by Ollie Kendrick rails against Kefauver as a sell-out and laments that there is no states rights candidate. "On Racial Issue" by Larkin S. Blake blames Communists for Supreme Court ruling.
May 19, 1956. Two Editorials: "Textile Union Backs Integration" claims that the Textile Workers Union's pro-integration position will alienate it from southern workers. "Unpleasant Situation" notes that at a desegregated prom in Oak Ridge the couples chose to remain racially segregated. Letter to the Editor: "Armed Forces" by Nathan B. Forrest wonders if low enlistment numbers is due to the desegregation of military forces. Article: "It's Two Years Old." Details the second anniversary of the Supreme Court Brown v. Board education and Tennessee's response to it. Article: "A Matter of Merger." Details the proposed unification of Hamilton county and Chattanooga schools and the benefits and problems associated with such a move.
May 21, 1956. Editorial: "Manifesto Not Futile" takes TN Senator Albert Gore, Sr. to task for saying Southern Manifesto served no purpose. Letter to the Editor: "Raps Ford Fund" by Mrs. E. V. Kendrick rallies against the Ford Foundation's grant funding of groups that support desegregation.
May 24, 1956. Letter to the Editor: "On Segregation" by J. B. J. wants political candidates to state their positions on desegregation.
May 25, 1956. Letter to the Editor: "Bible Quoted" by T. D. Lewis sees hope for racial equality due to a Bible verse.
May 29, 1956. Editorial: "Dr. Bunche Right and Wrong" notes a comment by Dr. Ralph Bunche, that segregation will end within our lifetime, as false. Letter to the Editor: "No Bible Proof" by "For the Truth" proposes that religious leaders are misguided to use the Bible as proof that segregation is wrong.
June 1, 1956. Editorial: "Results of Integration" blames a "race riot" on a boating excursion in Buffalo, NY on the mixing of whites and blacks. Letter to the Editor: "On Segregation" by Jacob Frazier wonders why an open vote at a PTA meeting was stopped.
June 2, 1956. Letter to the Editor: "Self-Exaltation" by F. W. Muse claims political candidates use racial issue for their own gain.
June 6, 1956. Letter to the Editor: "Communist Dupes" by "A Disgusted Church Member" claims churches that promote pro-integration beliefs are working for the Communist agenda.
June 7, 1956. Two Letters to the Editor: "Race Issue" by Mrs. W. A. Blevins believes common sense shows that racial mixing is wrong. "False Witness" by "For the Truth" wants churches to show where in the Bible it says segregation is wrong.
June 9, 1956. Editorial: "Decide Segregation Issue First" rejects the call for a new school until a decision is reached on the desegregation issue.
June 10, 1956. Article: "Talks on Segregation Will Begin on Tuesday." Briefly details the scheduling of a series of weekly, open meetings to discuss desegregation, lead by the local chapter of the NAACP.
June 11, 1956. Two Letters to the Editor: "Ingratitude" by F. W. Muse rages against a statement by the Soviet Union's foreign minister that America is "Villain Number 1." "Racial Issue" by "For the Truth" sees social constructionism rather than religious belief behind churches move toward desegregation.
June 12, 1956. Editorial: "'Aid' to Integration" sees federal aid to schools as a threat to local control and keeping schools segregated.
June 14, 1956. Editorial: "Better Subjects in the North" rejects plans for a movie to dramatize the Emmett Till murder, claiming incidents in the North better show what happens when integration occurs. Letter to the Editor: "Vague Stands Hit" by "A Voter" believes politicians should boldly state their position on segregation.
June 16, 1956. Letter to the Editor: "Sedition Acts" by Oscar Lapirow complains about a recent Supreme Court ruling overriding state sedition laws.
June 18, 1956. Editorial: "Northern Segregation" applauds a "Look" magazine article that shows the strength of racial segregation in the North. Letter to the Editor: "Organization Woes" by "A Lover of Freedom" maintains that political and organizational leaders try to take away the freedoms of their members.
June 19, 1956. Letter to the Editor: "Till on Film" by Simon White condemns plans to make a movie about the murder of Emmett Till.
June 20, 1956. Two Letters to the Editor: "For Integration" by D. L. Reeves praises the stance of various church bodies in favor of desegregation. "Imported Influence" by Nathan B. Forrest condemns the decision by church bodies, particularly the Methodists, to support desegregation.
June 21, 1956. Letter to the Editor: "On Segregation" by Jeff Rogers claims that if schools integrate then white students will adopt the speech patterns and culture of black students.
July 2, 1956. Letter to the Editor: "Integrate From Top?" by "Missouri Mule" challenges church bodies to integrate their leadership before forcing it on the membership.
July 3, 1956. Article: "Moore Offers Definitive Segregation School Plan." Details the presentation of three proposals by TN state legislature candidate Don Moore Jr that will address the mandated school desegregation order.
Two Letters to the Editors: "Raps Editorial" by Reginald G. Hyberger believes that Southern leaders are compromising the economic gains attained after World War II by staying committed to segregation. "Proposal Hit" by L. W. S. maintains that instead of always raising taxes governments should be more prudent in their spending.
July 4, 1956. Editorial: "Beware of the Whip" decries the inclusion of an amendment to a federal school tax bill that would deny federal funds to schools that are segregated.
July 7, 1956. Article: "Ben Cash Reveals Stand for Segregated Schools." Details the pro-segregation in schools stance of TN senator Ben Cash and his positions on other issues. Includes full statement. Two Letters to the Editor: "Moore Idea Liked" by P. W. Stonestreet agrees with school compromise proposal submitted by candidate Don Moore, Jr. "On Segregation" by "A Forum Reader" maintains racial mixing is against God's laws.
Source: "Knoxville Journal" Article: "Segregation Plan Same During Year." Details the decision by the Knoxville and Knox County school boards regarding desegregation for the 1956-57 school year.
July 12, 1956. Article: "Ragon Challenges Case on Segregation." Details TN senate candidate J. B. Ragon's challenge to candidate James Lee Case's position on desegregation. Editorial: "New Threat, New Manifesto" worries that proposed civil rights program and federal enforcement will continue to weaken local controls. Letter to the Editor: "Letter Rapped" by William C. Phillips rejects a pro-integration letter to the editor saying it will lead to interracial marriage.
July 16, 1956. Article: "Malone Asks Segregation." Details TN congressional candidate R. D. Malone's position on school desegregation and other issues. Statement presented in full. Two Letters to the Editor: "Reply to Letter" by Mrs. E. V. Kendrick rejects a pro-integration letter to the editor saying the writer has been duped by Communists. "On School Mixing" by "A White Southerner" is resigned to the need to desegregate schools due to the Supreme Court ruling and offers a way to integrate.
July 17, 1956. Article: "Meacham Foe Open Shop." Details TN congressional candidate Alex Meacham's position on school desegregation. Statement presented in full. Editorial: "Don Moore Jr for State House" endorses candidate Don Moore Jr primarily due to his pro-segregation stance.
July 27, 1956. Article: "Roy V. Harris to Talk Here." Details a public meeting by the Tennessee Society to Maintain Segregation featuring segregationist Roy V. Harris. Letter to the Editor: "Will Not Integrate" by Ollie Kendrick rejects a call to integrate by a previous letter writer and calls on Southerners to fight against desegregation.
July 29, 1956. Article: "Political Side Step." Details the mollifying of opinion by some political candidates about desegregation and notes the increase in voter registration by blacks. Source: Knoxville News Sentinel, Article: "Chattanoogans to Get Voice on Integration." Details the decision by the city school board to implement school desegregation, but slowly, and notes the different editorial opinions by the two newspapers.
July 39, 1956. Article: "Roy Harris Praises Tennessee for Their Fight Against Integration Despite Lack of Leadership." Details the pro-segregation rally held on the courthouse lawn that featured Roy Harris as speaker.
September 10, 1956. Three Letters to the Editor: "President Rapped" by Nathan B. Forrest condemns President Eisenhower's support of the right of the Supreme Court to rule on a state issue like school desegregation. "Loss of Freedom" by Robert Williams decries the use of force against a rally in Clinton, TN. "Whites Guilty, Too" by Vallory Niles charges that white privilege keeps whites from being held as accountable as blacks for their sins.
September 11, 1956. Four Letters to the Editor: "Who Are Agitators?" by L. P. M'elhaney claims the NAACP and its supporters are agitating to change the Southern way of living. "No Equality" by Jeff Rogers reviews Western history and its high points while claiming African Americans can't claim rights to these achievements. "Racial Issue" by Tom A. Hawk rejects the right of the Supreme Court to rule on local concerns. "Civil, Social Laws" by Paul B. Stahr considers the difference between civil and social laws.
September 12, 1956. Three Letters to the Editor: "Time for Decision" by T. L. Mitchell calls on Tennesseans who believe in segregation and states' rights to agitate and let their political leaders know their opinions. "Negro Against Mixing" by E. L. Carter, a sophomore at Howard high school, explains why he doesn't want to go to a white school. "I'd Feel Ashamed" by Mrs. Leona Echols believes African American students would feel like outsiders in a white school and unable to learn.
September 14, 1956. Three Letters to the Editor: "Use Private Schools" by Mrs. M. L. M. contends that blacks don't want to integrate so much as they want an equal education. "Have No Leader" by "An Unreconstructed Southerner" condemns the Supreme Court and Governor Clement and calls on Southerners to resist desegregation. "Negroes United" by "Ex-Negro Paratrooper" claims Negroes have awakened and are willing to fight against racial injustice.
September 24, 1956. Editorial: "Fruits of Integration" notes recent "racial disturbances" across the U.S., blaming them on integration, while noting no fights had occurred in Chattanooga. Letter to the Editor: "Racial Referendum" by "A Reader" calls on African Americans to support a call for a statewide vote on desegregation.
September 27, 1956. Three Letters to the Editor: "Bus Incident" by C. M. Trapani notes an African American woman who rode in the whites only section of a city bus, calling her an NAACP plant to cause trouble. "Action Needed" by "A Southerner" calls on state legislators to take action against desegregation. "Schools Idea" by J. P. Chambers suggests that whites set up private schools to circumvent the desegregation order.
September 28, 1956. Letter to the Editor: "For Segregation" by Mrs. R. W. recalls her experience going to a desegregated school and doesn't want her daughter to experience it.
September 25, 1956. Letter to the Editor: "Negro Won't Mix" by Mrs. Betty Williams claims blacks don't want integration per se, they just want an equal education.
September 26, 1956. Four Letters to the Editor: "Both Parties Alike" by T. L. Mitchell presents a long list of issues he has with the national leadership in both parties. "Integration Vote" by Mrs. J. L. Hurt wants a national referendum on school desegregation. "Never Intended" by A. H. Morgan claims God segregated people and that abolitionists never intended for African Americans to integrate. "Who's Dumb" by "A Lover of Georgia" commands Tennesseans to impeach Governor Clement and put a segregationist in his place.
October 1, 1956. Five Letters to the Editor. "Integration Hit" by Frank Campbell disagrees with a pro-integration letter. "Race Mixing" by W. J. Cannon warns of religion and politics influencing each other. "States Righter" by Claude A. Patterson encourages voters to vote for politicians who support states' rights in order to split the vote. "Racial Issue" by "A Good Reader" condemns the use of the Bible to justify racial prejudice. "O. John Attacked" by Ruth Stephens rejects opinions submitted by O. John about school desegregation.
October 3, 1956. Four Letters to the Editor. "Derthick Rapped" by John Comb wants Lawrence Derthick to stop pushing for desegregation in city schools. "Bus Seating" by Lawrence Levan expresses dismay that an African American boy was sitting at the front of the bus. "Matter of Trust" by "A Reader" criticizes Governor Clement for not stating his position on integration. "Nixon and NAACP" by "A Constant Reader of The Free Press" chastises the newspaper for unequal news coverage.
October 9, 1956. Six Letters to the Editor. "View on Race" by "Disgusted" claims African Americans are demanding a status they do not deserve. "Integrators Hit" by "A States Rights Member" rejects desegregation supporters and calls for states' rights candidates to be elected. "NAACP's Funds" by "An Independent Democrat" decries sources of NAACP funds and their uses and calls for segregation to be maintained. "Take a Side" by Clyde Bishop wants God to be given credit for prosperity rather than President Eisenhower. "Raps Derthick" by "A Former Teacher" warns that it might be better to keep Lawrence Derthick in Chattanooga than to allow him to leave for the Department of Education in Washington, D.C. "Opposes Derthick" by Roy Howard hopes that Lawrence Derthick will leave as city schools superintendent.
October 11, 1956. Article: "Teachers Union Votes to Quit AFL-CIO Rather Than Integrate." Details a vote by the white teachers union in Chattanooga to reject its membership with the AFL-CIO in advance of its deadline to integrate white and black teachers unions. Letter to the Editor: "For Integration" by "A Reader" calls out Southerners who reject desegregation as non-Christian.
October 25, 1956. Letter to the Editor: "On Integration" by "A Friend of His" acknowledges that all people are one under Jesus but also individuals.
October 26, 1956. Two Letters to the Editor. "Disagrees" by O. John calls out two letter writers who are pro-segregation. "Segregationist" by "A Chattanooga Negro" rejects sexual relations between races, even by violent means if necessary.
October 29, 1956. Two Letters to the Editor: "Not An Integrator" by W. C. Searcy believes both whites and blacks don't want to integrate. "School Mixing" by Nathan B. Forrest poises a series of questions about justifying school desegregation.
Undated: Eight Letters to the Editor: "Racial Issue" by Mrs. B. D. Baltock rails against Governor Clements, Communists, and desegregation. "Move Back North" by Mrs. Ralph Miller chides a Northern woman who wrote supporting desegregation. "For Integration" by "A Chattanooga Southerner" is glad for pro-integration politicians. "Yankee Go Home" by "A States Rights Member" wants Northerners to stop trying to change the South. "Integrated Anonymity" Karl Talley takes anonymous letter writers to task, especially those who write pro-integration letters. "Kasper, Carter" by "A Reader" rejects the idea of a pro-segregation third-party and their supporters. "NAACP Backers" by Braxton Bragg lists the names of some financial backers of the NAACP. "Opposes Derthick" by W. Stephens wants city school superintendent Lawrence Derthick to leave. Undated: Five Letters to the Editor: "Equal Rights" by Barbara B. Parsons chides as offensive to God any man's attempt to subjugate another man. "Mrs. Byrd Answered" by Mrs. B. D. Baltock states that Southerners have a moral obligation to resist desegregation. "Bible on Integration" by F. W. Muse uses a Bible story to show the sins of integration and intermarriage. "More PTA's" by "Pop-Off" rejects a father's letter to the editor about a chaotic PTA meeting about desegregation. "Contaminated Minds" by B. J. H., a 15 year old African American student, explains that blacks want rights equal to whites and condemns whites for selectively using blacks for their own advantage.
August 8, 1955. Source: The Pensacola Journal, Editorial: "Lesson in Americanism That All Should Ponder" commends the Chattanooga city school board's decision to respect the rule of law and accept the Supreme Court's decision to desegregate public schools. A portion of their statement is presented in full.
Undated: Four Letters to the Editor: "American Way" by H. O. Griffith states concerns that American freedoms are being lost in the wake of the Supreme Court ruling. "For State Rights" by Mrs. Ralph Miller rejects letter by Northern writer and encourages all to vote for states' rights candidates. "Third Party Hit" by O. John argues that states' rights candidates belong to the KKK and that true violence will happen if third party candidates are elected. "Bad Examples" by Braxton Bragg criticizes politicians who are pro-integration for not sending their children to integrated schools.
Date 1956
Dates of Creation March 28, 1956 - October 1956
Extent of Description 16.50" x 12.25" x 1.00"
Lexicon category 8: Communication Artifact
Lexicon sub-category Documentary Artifact
Accession number 1998.080