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Object Name Scrapbook
Catalog Number 1998.080.370
Collection Hamilton County Department of Education Collection
Description Red and gold scrapbook. Contains newspaper articles about Chattanooga public schools and focus on school desegregation. The articles are from the Chattanooga News Free Press and the Chattanooga TImes. Dates of articles are January through March 1956. Stickers on pages list the dates of the articles. Scrapbook held together by cord. Articles are glued onto pages.

January 4, 1956. Letter to the Editor by T. D. Lewis "Ethnic Groups; Lewis Points Out Negro, White Blood Mixes" Lewis uses Bible-based reasoning for the unity of the races and argues that culture rather than race determines identifying characteristics.
January 8, 1956. Article: "Segregationists to Hear Lawyer" Announces that R. Carter Pittman will speak at a public meeting of the Tennessee Society to Maintain Segregation.
January 9, 1956. Photograph caption. R. Carter Pittman, speaker at the Tennessee Society to Maintain Segregation meeting.
January 10, 1956. Article: "Segregationists Ponder 2 Actions" Details the public meeting of the Tennessee Society to Maintain Segregation, featuring R. Carter Pittman, which was attended by 300 people. Briefly outlines the positions of several speakers who believe the Supreme Court ruling was unconstitutional and should be resisted. Includes a photograph of four of the key speakers.
Article: "Virginia Speaks Against Mixing" Details the vote in Virginia to hold a constitutional convention to allow public funds to be used for private schools as a way to deal with the desegregation ruling by the Supreme Court.
Article: "Segregationists Rap Race Rule, School Board, Kefauver, Clement" Details the public meeting of the Tennessee Society to Maintain Segregation, featuring R. Carter Pittman, which was attended by 300 people. Briefly outlines the positions of several speakers who believe the Supreme Court ruling was unconstitutional and should be resisted. Includes a photograph of four of the key speakers.
January 11, 1956. Letter to the Editor by T. L. Mitchell. "Interposition" Mitchell argues case as to why the Supreme Court did not have the authority to make desegregation "the law of the land."
Letter to the Editor by Mrs. Evelyn Kendrick. "Racial Plan; Mrs. Kenrick Says God Started Segregation" Kenrick uses Bible-based arguments to affirm racial diversity and segregation.
January 12, 1956. Two Letters to the Editor. "Racial Question" by "A Citizen of Chattanooga" presents portions of an article by Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas about segregation practices in the Soviet Union. "Desegregation" by "A Lodge Member" mentions segregated secret societies and opines that if their members promote desegregation they need to include their societies.
January 14, 1956. Letter to the Editor by "Citizen." "For Segregation" argues that segregation should be maintained and encourages people to join the Tennessee Society to Maintain Segregation.
January 17, 1956. Letter to the Editor by "Practical." "Racial Question" examines the influence of Communist ideas as they relate to racial equality.
January 18, 1956 Three Letters to the Editor. "Against Mixing" by James Burton supports segregation. "On Segregation" by Thomas G. Carson argues that Southerners cannot use the Bible or their traditions to justify segregation. "Judge Praised" by Mrs. L. V. Burroughs is addressed to U.S. District Court Judge John Druffel and commends him for defying the Supreme Court desegregation ruling.
January 22, 1956. Article "Japanese Newsman Touring South Checks Segregation Issues Here." Details a foreign exchange student, Masabumi Kobayashi, work in American newspapers, differences in publishing methods, and his impressions of America. Includes a photograph of the journalist.
January 23, 1956. Article "Segregationist Group to Call on Governor." Briefly details a planned trip by members of the Tennessee Society to Maintain Segregation and other segregationist groups to meet with Governor Frank Clement to discuss laws that would continue segregation practices in Tennessee.
Article "Session Asked to Ban Mixing" Briefly details result of trip by segregationist groups that met with Governor Clement.
January 24, 1956. Article "Clement Says Racial Group Aiding NAACP." Detailed presentation of the meeting between segregationists groups and Governor Clement. Includes text from Clement's response, segregationist groups' demands, and crowd reactions in general.
Editorial: "Gov. Clement Refuses to Act" Laments Governor Clement's position, presented yesterday, that local authorities should decide how to proceed with school desegregation.
January 25, 1956. Editorial: "When Clement Did 'Interfere'" Presents example of when Governor Clement "interfered" in a local school board decision regarding desegregation and laments Clement's decision for the state to stand aside.
January 26, 1956. Editorial: "'Nibbling Away' at Segregation" Presents a judge's order that Nashville's municipal golf courses be desegregated and extrapolates this as an example of what will happen until total desegregation is achieved, which the citizens of Tennessee do not support.
Three Letters to the Editor: "Letter Rapped" by "Disgusted" objects to a previous editorial and rejects the Supreme Court ruling as overreach and Communist. "Red Inspired?" by "A Communist Fighter" maintains that Communists are behind the desegregation movement and people should be aware the motives of outside speakers. "Racial Agitation" by "Practical" condemns northern and eastern states for actions against southern states and proposes that African Americans supporting integration be relocated to those states.
January 28, 1956. Letter to the Editor: "Appeal to Forum" by "A Repentant Voter" who regrets voting for Governor Clement given his position on how to proceed with desegregation.
January 30, 1956. Two Letters to the Editor: "Judge Praised" by J. C. Pierce presents a letter to U.S. District Judge John Duffel supporting his stand against the Supreme Court desegregation ruling. "N-FP Praised" by Robert Adams praises the reporting of the News Free Press, and the greatness of Tennessee and Chattanooga.
January 31, 1956 Editorial: "Avoid Danger of Race Friction." Notes a potentially race-related altercation at Memorial Auditorium the previous night and cautions for good will between the races while endorsing segregation as a worthy policy. Two Letters to the Editor: "Paper Praised" by Paul B. Stahr quotes a GOP leadership report and military re-enlistment report that brings forth information to readers. "Raps Clements" by John H. Thomas admonishes Governor Clement's decision to let local authorities make decisions about segregation.
Two Letters to the Editor: "Russian Deceit" by F. W. Muse laments the power of the Soviet Union and its nationalistic goals. "Letter to Clement" by "Happy Go-Lucky Club" presents a letter to Governor Clement using a Bible-based argument against desegregation.
January 31, 1956. Front page news story: "City Investigates Dance Brawl; 3 Fined $50 On Drunk Charges." Details a bottle-throwing brawl at Memorial Auditorium between African American dancers and Anglo spectators during an evening dance. "Judge Deplores White Spectators at Dances." Provides the opinion by Judge Raulston Schoolfield that white spectators should not be allowed to attend dances hosted by African Americans. He indicates the brawl is an indication that "we are not ready for integration."
February 1, 1956. Editorial: "Preach Against Violence." Laments on the racial brawl that happened at Memorial Auditorium and encourages ministers and community leaders to promote nonviolence. Article: "City Will Be Asked to Bar Mixed Crowds at Dances." Details request by Commissioner George McInturff to have a special policy meeting to address mixed race attendance at dances in Memorial Auditorium. Also provides detailed accounting of brawl. Article: "Board to Meet Friday On Auditorium Policy." Details scheduling of special meeting of the Memorial Auditorium board of directors. Letter to the Editor: "Racial Issue" by Jacob Frazier criticizes the school board, progressive education, and links desegregation to Communism.
February 1, 1956. Editorial: "More Segregation Needed" agrees with the proposed policy to stop mixed race events at Memorial Auditorium.
February 3, 1956. Editorial: "'Separate But Equal'" charges the Supreme Court desegregation ruling has raised racial tensions in the South. Editorial: "A Difficult Problem" disagrees with the proposed policy change at Memorial Auditorium. Letter to the Editor: "Paper Attacked" by Mrs. C. White chastises the newspaper for not relating positive desegregation news and for believing separate but equal is a viable policy.
February 4, 1956. Article: "Board Upsets Move to Avoid Mixed Crowds." Details the rejection by the Memorial Auditorium board of a new policy about mixed race attendance at events. Editorial: "A Sound Position" approves of the decision by the Memorial Auditorium board not to change its policy. Article: "Auditorium Board Keeps Same Policy." Details the rejection by the Memorial Auditorium board of a new policy about mixed race attendance at events. Editorial: "Asking for Another Brawl?" disagrees with the private meeting held by the Memorial Auditorium board and its decision.
February 5, 1956. Editorial: "Opening Wedge" by Springer Gibson who claims that the brawl at Memorial Auditorium was due to a mixture of alcohol and racial mixing.
February 7, 1956. Three Letters to the Editor: "Clement Rapped" by Jeb Stewart who disagrees with Governor Clement's position about segregation, "Divine Segregation" by A. C. Bolton offers a Bible-based defense for segregation, "On Racial Issues" by Mrs. Theodore R. Smith rejects using the Bible to defend segregation. Editorial: "Violence in Alabama" opines that the Supreme Court ruling incites racial violence.
February 8, 1956. Article: "Segregation Society to Hear Rev. Morgan Thursday Night." Briefly details a meeting of the Tennessee Society to Maintain Segregation, featuring Reverend Herbert Morgan.
February 9, 1956. Three Letters to the Editors: "States' Rights" by Deward Daves declares that only a constitutional amendment can legally change segregation, "For Integration" by O. John criticizes the newspaper editor for his anti-desegregation position, "Reply to Matthews" by Joe Trenner takes issue with a previous editorial that supported desegregation.
February 10, 1956. Two Letters to the Editor: "Judge Not" by Joseph M. West uses the Bible to show the unity of mankind through heritage, "Clement and Shivers" by Bevis Smith compares the desegregation reactions by the TN governor and the Texas governor.
February 13, 1956. Two Letters to the Editor: "Governor Rapped" by W. G. Thomas presents a letter to Governor Clement rejecting his desegregation position, "On Segregation" by Mrs. Evelyn Kendrick chastises the Eisenhowers' for sending their children to a segregated private school.
February 14, 1956. Three Letters to the Editor: "Aid to Schools" by T. L. Mitchell argues against federal funding of education, "Racial Question" by "Practical" uses Bible-based argument for segregation, "Segregation Issue" by S. Seaborn Smith maintains white tax payers primarily pay for African Americans' education.
February 15, 1956. Editorial: "What Can Be Done?" presents a range of options to be considered in dealing with mandated desegregation.
February 16, 1956. Two Letters to the Editor: "Demos Blasted" by "Democrat" decries progressive democrats as communists, "On Integration" by P. W. Stonestreet argues about the difference between civil rights and social rights.
February 18, 1956. Article" "O'Dell Wants Segregation." Details the announcement by Otis O'Dell that he is running for the Third District county court judge seat on a pro-segregation platform.
February 21, 1956. Editorial: "Sense at Atlantic City" discusses actions taken at the annual meeting of the National Education Association and a presentation by Lawrence Derthick.
February 22, 1956. Two articles: "Union Reigns, Darr Asserts" Details a presentation by U.S. District Judge Leslie R. Darr to the Sons of the American Revolution regarding the shift in federal powers after the 14th Amendment. "Saturday Parade Planned by Klan" details a request to the city commission by the Ku Klux Klan for a motorcade parade through Chattanooga.
February 22, 1956. Two editorials: "KKK Deserves Contempt" speaks out strongly against a planned KKK parade in Chattanooga. "Progress Bartered Away" examines the question of if race relations have deteriorated since the Brown v. Board decision. Article: "City Holds Up Decision on Klan Parade" details the city commission's decision to withhold a vote on a proposed Klan parade until a formal application was submitted. Article: "Rights Loss Cited by Darr" Briefly details a presentation by U.S. District Judge Leslie R. Darr to the Sons of the American Revolution regarding the shift in federal powers after the 14th Amendment. Letter to the Editor: "Thanks Pastor" by "A Member" encourages church congregations to withdraw from churches with a pro-segregation stance.
February 23, 1956. Article: "City Studies Klan Request" details the Klan's formal application for a parade through Chattanooga. Editorial: "The End- and a Beginning" decries the "forced" desegregation of public schools and conjectures that private schools will become the de facto method of educating students. Letter to the Editor: "Racial Issue" by E. R. Evans explains why the Supreme Court ruling on desegregation is unconstitutional.
February 24, 1956. Article: "Pupils Held Easy to Desegregate" details a discussion by school educators about desegregation at the annual American Association of School Administrators. Editorial: "Next to the News" by Alfred Mynders rejects the idea that the Supreme Court has "made a law" with regards to the Brown v. Board decision.
February 25, 1956. Editorial: "Majorities Have Rights, Too" argues that, in the case of school desegregation, the rights of the minority have overruled the rights of the majority.
February 26, 1956. Article: "Applied Diplomacy" details the closed door meeting between city commission and KKK representative and subsequent withdraw of their application for a parade permit.
February 27, 1956. Article: "Most White Southerners Believe Desegregation Inherently Wrong" details the results of interviews with white people about the desegregation ruling. Interviews were conducted during an extensive tour of all 13 Southern states. Editorial: "Legal Means of Appeal" claims the Supreme Court overreached its powers and encourages states to adopt "interposition" as a legal means of rejecting desegregation. Letter to the Editor: "On Racial Issue" by "Yankee" shares his desegregated school experience in the North and agrees with the Southern view on segregation.
February 28, 1956. Article: "South's Negroes for Integration, But Minority Fear for Children." details the results of interviews with African American people about the desegregation ruling. Interviews were conducted during an extensive tour of all 13 Southern states. Editorial: "He Doesn't Understand the South" dismisses Adlai Stevenson's call for a race summit and promotes the unique relationship between blacks and whites in the South. Two Letters to the Editor: "Likes Editorial" by Montgomery Hicks condemns Northern interference in Southern ways. "Raps Sit-Down" by Ben A. Byrd, Jr. chastises a call for a national work stoppage protest by African Americans.
February 29, 1956. Two Letters to the Editor: "Ruling Unconstitutional" by P. W. Stonestreet uses the federal and state constitutions to show that the Supreme Court ruling is unconstitutional. "Eternal Damnation" by T. D. Lewis uses the Bible to condemn those who are racially prejudice.
March 1, 1956. Article: "Faulkner Advises NAACP, Others to Slow Drive for Mixed Schools." Provides an abbreviated version of an article William Faulkner presented in Life magazine. Article: "Majority of People in the South Concede Desegregation to Come" details the results of interviews with black and white people about the desegregation ruling. Interviews were conducted during an extensive tour of all 13 Southern states. Editorial: "The Pattern and Alternatives" uses the desegregation of the University of Alabama as an example of what's in store for the South. Four Letters to the Editor: "Editorial Praised" by "M. Sad" praises a recent NFP anti-KKK editorial. "Sound Advice" by James C. White agrees with segregation. "Still Punished" by "Practical" argues the South was not treated as allowed by Article III of the constitution after the Civil War. "Reply to Letter" by Nathan B. Forrest takes issue with the author of an earlier letter to the editor.
March 2, 1956. Editorial: "The Trustees' Action." Reviews recent actions by the University of Alabama regarding desegregation.
Editorial: "NAACP Outsmarts Itself." Provides an overview of recent actions by the University of Alabama regarding desegregation.
March 3, 1956. Editorial: "Next to the News" muses on the recent action by the University of Alabama and opinions presented by Adlai Stevenson. Four Letters to the Editor: "Class Segregation" by "A Real Yankee" disagrees with the author of an earlier letter to the editor. "On Racial Issue" by "A Reader" uses Bible-base argument for segregation. "Birds of Feather" by Frances M'Kenzie rails against the Supreme Court ruling. "Dixie Patriots" by John C. White encourages Southerners to champion the old ways. Two Editorials: "They Mean the Same Thing" laments that there are no presidential candidates who oppose desegregation. "Critics to Be Proud of" boasts about the promotion of Mississippi Senator James Eastland. Letter to the Editor: "Praises Paper" by "Victim of Political Desertion" states hopes that segregationist politicians will be elected in Tennessee.
March 5, 1956. Article: "Allen Sees No Mixing In Schools Next Fall." Details statement by Commissioner of Education Harry Allen and other school officials about upcoming desegregation plans. Editorial: "The Plight of the South" defends the record of President Eisenhower and points out previous administration actions as being detrimental to southern autonomy.
March 6, 1956. Two Editorials: "A Changing Pattern" discusses extension of desegregation to public colleges and universities. "Supreme Court 'Law' Extended" states strong disagreements with inclusion of colleges and universities in desegregation. Three Letters to the Editor: "On Racial Issue" by "Real Southerner" encourages any "Yankee" who doesn't like the Southern culture to leave. "Citizens' Rights" by T. L. Mitchell uses the constitution and history to argue against the Supreme Court ruling. "Blasts Letter" by A. J. Strobel rejects integration arguments by transplanted Northerners.
March 7, 1956. Editorial: "Story of a Dying School" uses Alton Park elementary school as an example of "white flight." Two Letters to the Editors: "A Word to the Wise" by "An American Yankee" proposes that Northerners also disagree with the desegregation movement. "Equal Rights" by "A Believer in Fairness" argues that to have equalities African Americans should do for themselves.
March 8, 1956. Two Letters to the Editor: "Counter Reply" by "Yankee" responds to a response to her previous letter to the editor. "Raps Letter" by Phil Daniel rejects the content of a previous letter to the editor.
March 9, 1956. Article: "2 County PTA Locals Vote for Segregation." Details the decision of two PTA groups that voted to support segregation and other PTA groups that are discussing what action to take.
March 10, 1956. Letter to the Editor: "News Coverage" by J. I. Johnson disagrees with those who think the newspaper is spending too much time covering desegregation actions.
March 11, 1956. Article: "Dixie Legislators Unite in Backing Lawful Resistance to Integration." Details the signing by Southern congressmen a manifesto to resist "by all lawful means" attempts to end school segregation.
March 12, 1956. Editorial: "Manifesto." Discusses the manifesto signed by Southern congressmen, how it can be enforced, and the powers of the government. Article: "Alabama Editor, New York Negro Cite Regional, Race Disharmony." Details a conversation between a Northern NAACP leader and an Alabama editor about the kinds of segregation and racial tension that exists in the North. Article: "Southern Declaration." Verbatim text of Southern legislators' manifesto about Supreme Court decision and their resistance to it. Article: "Congressmen Pledge Fight on Race Issue." Details the circumstances surrounding the manifesto and the stance it takes. Article: "Southern Manifesto." Verbatim text of Southern legislators' manifesto about Supreme Court decision and their resistance to it. Article: "Racial Stand Stirs Senate." Details the reaction in the U.S. Senate when the Southern Manifesto was read aloud. Editorial: "A Southern Declaration" supports the position stated in the Southern Manifesto. Letter to the Editor: "Estes Ignores South" by Ollie Kendrick strongly denounces TN Senator Estes Kefauver.
March 13, 1956. Article: "Alabama Serves as 'Anti' Symbol." Provides an overview of thoughts and attitudes of African Americans and Anglos in the South about segregation and attempts to integrate the races. Article: "Citizens Councils Vary, Widespread in South." Briefly describes Citizens Councils and their makeup. Article: "NAACP Began in '09, Now Has 13,000 Units." Briefly describes the NAACP and its makeup. Article: "Court Does Not Rule on Mixed Marriages." Briefly details a Supreme Court pass on ruling on interracial marriage, which stemmed from a marriage between a Chinese man and a white American woman. Article: "Georgia's Theme Is One of Delay." Ruminates on the history and culture of Georgia and how that is being played out in their response to desegregation. Article: "Integration National Issue, Not One for the South Alone." Extensive survey and examination of the state of race relations and integration across the U.S. Article: "Tennessee Taking Middle Course And Shows Attitude of Good Faith." Extensive examination of Tennessee's response to the school desegregation order. [Some text is missing due to poorly trimmed clippings.]
March 12, 1956. Article: "New Group Is Led By Schoolfield." Details the election of Judge Raulston Schoolfield as president of the States' Rights Council of Tennessee, a nonprofit organization opposed to segregation.
March 13, 1956. Editorial: "Next to the News" Examines the out migration of African Americans from the South to Chicago and the impact it is having there. Article: "Race Problem Cracks Unity of Democrats." Details the reading of the Southern Manifesto and reaction to it, including desegregation tensions among Democrats. Article: "Five From Tennessee Support Declaration." Briefly details which Tennessean politicians support the Manifesto. Article: "States Rights Council of Tennessee President Sees 'New Rallying Point' for Segregation Cause." Details the election of Judge Raulston Schoolfield as president of the States' Rights Council of Tennessee, a nonprofit organization opposed to segregation. Editorial: "Shades of John C. Calhoun" extols the Southern Manifesto and encourages Southern politicians to unite and use their political power. Article: "Pittman Blasts Darr's Talks on Segregation." Details a presentation by R. Carter Pittman, president of the States' Rights Council of Georgia, rallying against Judge Darr's comments about the illegality of segregation based on the 14th Amendment.
March 14, 1956. Article: "Oklahoma Calm Over Integration." Details the reaction of Oklahoma to the desegregation ruling. Article: "Capital Led Way with Compliance." Details the reaction of Washington D.C. to the desegregation ruling. Article: "Virginia Is Calm And Isn't Mixing." Details the reaction of Virginia to the desegregation ruling. Article: "Arkansas Shows Checked Pattern." Details the reaction of Arkansas to the desegregation ruling. Article: "Florida Rolling with the Punch." Details the reaction of Florida to the desegregation ruling. Article: "Geographic Lines Divide Delaware." Details the reaction of Delaware to the desegregation ruling, paying particular attention to the divide between the southern and northern portions of the state. Article: Kentucky Taking Immediate Action." Details the reaction of Kentucky to the desegregation ruling. Article: "Mississippi Yet to Fulfill 'Separate, Equal' Doctrine." Details the reaction of Mississippi to the desegregation ruling. Includes statistics and graphs related to population in southern states. Editorial: "A Truthful Survey" applauds the objective reporting contained in the published surveys of southern states' reactions to desegregation.
March 14, 1956. Article: "Education Is Offered, Expelled Sophomore." Briefly details Georgia governor Marvin Griffin's offer to Leonard Wilson, who was expelled from the University of Alabama for racial aggression, to attend a Georgia university. Article: "Negroes Preponderant In Capital Enrollment." Notes the increase in African American population in Washington D.C. and a decrease in the Anglo population. Article: "Reuther Aid to NAACP Stirs Local Union Revolt." Details conflict between local United Automobile Workers in Memphis and national UAW leaders concerning desegregation. Editorial: "Betrayers of Their People" condemns democratic politicians who don't oppose desegregation. Letter to the Editor: "Aims of the NAACP" by "R. E. Bell" sarcastically presents the demands of the NAACP by drawing a ridiculous parallel. Article: "Race Issue Costs South Industries; Mounting Tension Slows Migration." Details the economic costs segregation takes, such as boycotts, marketing, and business expansion. Article: "Change Resisted by East Texans." Details the reaction of Texas to the desegregation ruling, noting differences in the geographic distribution of African Americans in the state. The article is incomplete. Article: "Louisiana Grants Gains to Negroes." Details the reaction of Louisiana to desegregation. Article is incomplete. Article: "Pattern Changes in West Virginia." Details the reaction of West Virginia to desegregation. Article: "South Carolina Segregation Likely to Last Indefinitely." Details the reaction of South Carolina to desegregation. Article: "85% of Missouri Being Integrated." Details the reaction of Missouri to desegregation. Article is incomplete. Article: "North Carolina Is on Borderline." Details the reaction of North Carolina to desegregation. Article is incomplete. Article: "'Manifesto' Held Misleading Move." Details charges by TN Congressman Ross Bass that the "Southern Manifesto" was designed primarily for political motives in the upcoming election.
March 15, 1956. Editorial: "Better Schools?" uses the initial results of school desegregation in Washington D.C. as a barometer for what will happen if Chattanooga schools desegregate.
March 16, 1956. Editorial: "Integration Policy Threatens Destruction of Chattanooga High, Alumni Leader Says" by Bill Hagan exalts the standards of Chattanooga high school and lists the reasons why he believes it should not be integrated. Article: "Bass to Talk on Manifesto." Details charges by TN Congressman Ross Bass that the "Southern Manifesto" was designed primarily for political motives in the upcoming election and presents reactions by fellow lawmakers. Two Letters to the Editor: "Who but Parents?" by J. C. Pierce believes each PTA has a say in whether its school should desegregate. "Racial Issue" by Albert Smith shows Rome, GA as a good example for an easy and smooth transition to desegregation. Editorial: "The Unions and the NAACP" reviews recent agitation between northern union officials and southern union members due to their press for desegregation in unions.
March 17, 1956. Editorial: "Third Party Talk"muses about the possibility of Southern segregationists forming a third party in the upcoming national elections. Article: "Fear CIO Fund Going to NAACP Stirs Row." Details discord between CIO union members about the distribution of a membership fee and wanting to keep it from benefiting the NAACP. Editorial: "The Abolitionists Rant Again" decries an editorial from Springfield, Missouri, which takes southern states to task for their resistance to the Supreme Court ruling on desegregation. Three Letters to the Editor: "Praises County PTA" by "A PTA Member" applauds PTAs that are activity resisting calls for desegregation. "Confederate Flag" by James L. Mathis regrets that the Confederate flag is being used as a political icon rather than as a memorial to Confederate dead. "Without Malice" by "Chattanooga Baptist Ministers' Union," an African American ministers union, notes the need for open communication and goodwill between all citizens and pledges their cooperation during 'trying times.'
March 19, 1956. Five Letters to the Editor: "Booker T. Washington" by F. W. Muse discusses Booker T. Washington's legacy and his position on integration. "On PTA Vote" by "A PTA Member" encourages PTA groups to vote on segregation before an April deadline. "Individualism" by P. W. Stonestreet mulls over social, religious, and American beliefs about individualism. "On Manifesto" by R. E. Barclay questions the position of Tennessee Republicans on the "Southern Manifesto" issue. "On Equal Rights" by "A Disgusted Reader And Also A Believer In Fairness" condemns the position of segregationists and challenges "white imperialism."
March 20, 1956. Article: "Integration Left to Court Action." Details the President's position on withholding school construction funds for desegregation non-compliant states. Editorial: "No Desegregated Park Wanted." Condemns consideration of the acquisition of a 550-acre tract of land at the Chickamauga Dam to turn into a park due to the fact that it would have to be a desegregated park. Four Letters to the Editor: "Roman Rapped" by Deward Daves disagrees with a previous letter to the editor that stated the benefits of Rome, GA and its racial harmony. "On Racial Ruling" by J. L. White calls on voters to vote against all candidates endorsed by the NAACP or ADA. "Likes Editorial" by P. W. Stonestreet agrees with a recent TFP editorial. "Attacks Manifesto" by Thomas G. Carson commends the two Tennessee senators who did not sign the "Southern Manifesto."
March 21, 1956. Article: "3 City PTA Groups 'Thwarted' on Voting." Details the attempt by three city PTA groups to have a vote affirming segregation in their schools but their attempts were stopped by parliamentary actions. Letter to the Editor: "Defends Georgians" by "Former Resident of Rome, GA" disagrees with a previous letter to the editor about Rome, GA and its racial harmony and uses Bible-based arguments for segregation.
March 22, 1956. Article: "President Tells South to Move." Details President Eisenhower's statements regarding Southern resistance to school desegregation and mentions a civil rights bill being developed in the House. Article: "Integration Study Fails in Nashville." Details the abandoning of a desegregation plan by Nashville city school board in advance of a court hearing. Editorial: "How They Stand on Segregation" compares the desegregation position of presidential candidates. Article: "Nashville Delays Plan on Integration." Details the abandoning of a desegregation plan by Nashville city school board in advance of a court hearing. Presents actions in other southern states.
March 23, 1956. Article: "Nashville School Board Concedes Segregation Illegal, Seeks Time." Details a federal court brief submitted by the Nashville school board regarding their desegregation plans. Article: "Race Issue Taken to the President." Details a request from Florida governor Leroy Collins to President Eisenhower to convene a conference of southern governors to discuss race relations. Article: "Those Ordering Integrate 'or Else' Could Say 'Moderation.' TEA Told." Details presentations held at the annual Tennessee Education Association meeting held in Chattanooga. Two Letters to the Editor: "On 'Corn Pone'" by Ann Foster takes an previous letter to the editor to task about slandering the objectives of the NAACP. "On Manifesto" by Phillip Harris challenges those politicians who did not sign the Southern Manifesto. Editorial: "Not Facing the Real Crisis" condemns the participants of the Tennessee Educators Association for not addressing the threat of desegregation in TN schools. Article: "Memphis Unit to Push Interposition in State." Details the formation of a new segregationist political organization in Memphis, and reports on other actions in the South.
March 24, 1956. Article: "Social Workers of State Reject Interposition Idea." Details the position taken by the Tennessee Conference of Social Work against interposition during their annual conference. Article: "Southern Moderates Invited to Take Lead." Details presentation by Buford Boone calling on Southern moderates to speak up against vocal segregationists. Article: "New Memphis Group Seeks Interposition." Briefly details the formation of a new segregationist political organization in Memphis. Article: "TEA Skirts Racial Issue." Details annual Tennessee Educators Association meeting and their avoidance of desegregation issue. Incomplete article. Editorial: "A Democratic Anti-South Manifesto" mentions an "Integration Manifesto" that's being crafted by northern democrats and laments southern democrats' association with northern democrats. Four Letters to the Editor: "Forced Compliance" by J. L. Rogers argues the Supreme Court ruling is illegal. "Skirting Issues" by Merrill H. Smith presents a letter to him from legislator Percy Priest in which Priest defends his reason for not signing the "Southern Manifesto." "Use of Chest Funds" by "A Former Contributor to the Community Chest" urges a boycott of the Guidance Clinic due to its pro-integration positions.
March 26, 1956. Article: "Full Citizenship for Negro Hailed." Details a speech by Dr. Gordon Rogers, Jr., Alabama president of the NAACP, held during a memorial service for Walter White, a Chattanoogan who served 25 years in the NAACP. Five Letters to the Editor: "Racial Issue" by Rev. William Dennis argues that all men of good will will support desegregation since it is not about race but justice. "Plea to Patriots" by Paul B. Stahr calls "all good men" to the aid of the country without indicating what that means. "Racial Attitude" by "Old Timer" encourages whites to embrace the "golden rule" when relating to blacks and criticizes politicians who stirs up racial prejudice for personal benefit. "Reply to Reply" by John N. Best responds to Ann Foster's criticism of his previous letter. "Hazardous Duty" by "Poor Pooped Papa" criticizes a recent PTA meeting for its violations of parliamentary procedures and intolerance of opinions. March 27, 1956. Article: "School Hearing Set in Nashville." Briefly details a scheduled federal court hearing on a desegregation suit for Nashville city schools. Editorial: "Prevent Rise of Violence" condemns recent acts of racial violence across the South but blames it on the desegregation order. Six Letters to the Editor: "Raps Segregationists" by O. John decries the actions of segregationist groups and the violence they champion. "Massive Resistance" by F. W. Muse calls for Tennesseans to resist desegregation orders since their elected officials won't. "Corn Pone Continued" by "A Rebel With Cause" notes his amusement with Anne Foster's reply to R. E. Bell's letter to the editor. "Right to Vote" by "A PTA Member" encourages city PTA groups to vote against desegregation. "Kefauver Defended" by Edgar E. Jones chastises the newspaper for their anti-Kefauver editorials. "Youth Speaks" by "A Troubled Teen-Ager" states that desegregation is causing racial trouble between whites and blacks and wishes things would go back to the way they were. Article: "O'Dell Urges Racial Stand." Details justice of the peace candidate Otis O'Dell's challenge that all candidates and public officials publicly announce their position on desegregation.
March 28, 1956. Article: "Nashville Awaits School Decision." Details the pending decision by a federal court on Nashville's school desegregation plan. Article: "Commission Is Urged on Segregation Issue." Details Senator H. Alexander Smith's call for a presidential special commission to consider how to deal with problems that have arisen since the desegregation order. Article: "5 PTA's Vote Segregation." Details the increasing number of county PTAs that have voted for keeping schools segregated. Article: "Schools Win Mixing Delay at Nashville." Details the postponement of a decision until October and a change in judge hearing. Also reports on the results of a survey of Alabama politicians who were asked their views on desegregation. Editorial: "'Integration' in the North" looks at reports of two northern cities and their experience with desegregation. Four Letters to the Editor: "Defends Kefauver" by "A Tennessee Homemaker" claims that Eisenhower and Kefauver are not selling out the South by promoting desegregation and should be commended for it. "War on Parents" by "Parent and PTA Member" refutes the pattern of increasing federal government control over local school systems. "Corn Pone Answers" by "First Grade Student, School of Hard Knocks" rejects the agenda of the NAACP and calls on politicians to resist it. "PTA Defended" by Eric H. Swanson chastises "Poor Pooped Papa's" letter to the editor on five specific points and questions whether he really was there.
Date 1956
Dates of Creation January 4, 1956 - March 28, 1956
Extent of Description 16.50" x 12.25" x 1.00"
Lexicon category 8: Communication Artifact
Lexicon sub-category Documentary Artifact
Accession number 1998.080