Archive Record

Object Name Scrapbook
Catalog Number 1998.080.372
Collection Hamilton County Department of Education Collection
Description Maroon and gold scrapbook. Contains newspaper articles about Chattanooga Public Schools. Dates of articles are April 12 through July 31, 1960. Articles glued onto pages. Dates of the articles are written on pages next to the articles. Scrapbook held together by maroon cord. The articles focus on the integration issue and sit-ins, demonstrations.

April 12, 1960: There are four articles from the Chattanooga News Free Press for this date. The first, "Negro Seized in Bomb-Placing Near Another's Vine St. Home", reports that a Negro man, accused of placing three sticks of dynamite outside the home of another Negro on March 30, was put under bond for a grand jury investigation. The second article, "The Need and The Time", is an editorial opposing forced integration of public schools in Chattanooga, and urges Hamilton County voters to elect state representatives who would pass legislation that would present an alternative to forced integration. The third article, "Expel All Students Convicted of 'Misconduct', State Orders", reports that the State Board of Education ordered the dismissal from state-supported institutions of any student who in the future "shall be arrested and convicted of charges involving personal misconduct", such as sit-ins and other civil rights protest activity. The fourth article is a letter to the editor in which a local attorney suggests a plan for more funding for private schools which would not have to be integrated.
April 13, 1960: There are two articles from the Chattanooga Times and three articles from The News Free Press for this date. The first Times article reports that in Nashville, police riot squads were called out twice to quell minor disturbance as students, mostly black, continued sit-in protests against segregated lunch counters. The second Times article is a letter to the editors that makes the argument that Communists are to blame for stirring up civil rights trouble, for the purpose of dividing America and weakening it enough to take over. The first Free Press article is an editorial praising the Chattanooga Police for their investigation of a recent bomb plot. The second Free Press article is an editorial praising the stance of the State Board of Education for its decision to dismiss any student attending a state school if they were convicted of misconduct, such as sit-ins or other civil rights protest activity. The third Free Press article reports that four Negro college students faced expulsion from school if convicted on disorderly conduct charges resulting from protests they participated in.
April 14, 1960: There are three News Free Press articles for this date.The first Free Press article reports that police investigated a report of a sit down by several Negroes at a Krystal Restaurant in Chattanooga. The second article is a letter to the editor. The letter argues that local authorities should be able to decide whether or not their schools and businesses should be integrated. The third article is a letter to the editor, and argues against "race mixing" of any kind.
April 15, 1960: There are three articles for this date, two from the Times, and one from the Free Press. The first Times article is a letter to the editor from some Birmingham residents, who take issue with the characterization of that city's police force and police chief, Bull Conner, by the Times. The second Times article is also a letter to the editor and uses the Bible to justify segregation. The Free Press article, an editorial, takes exception with the Florida Governor making disparaging remarks about the South in a speech he gave while he was in New Jersey.
April 16, 1960: There is one article from the Free Press for this date. The article reports that a group of about ten young Negroes demonstrated against the segregation of downtown lunch counters, especially along Market Street, in the downtown area of Chattanooga.
April 17, 1960: There are four articles from the Chattanooga Times for this date. The first article reports that twenty young Negroes carrying cardboard sign paraded the crowded downtown section (of Chattanooga) for four hours, and that the demonstrators, who began picketing some of the stores in the 700 and 800 blocks of Market Street were all but ignored by the thousands of last minute Easter shoppers. The second article reports on a disagreement in strategy that occurred at a conference for Southern Negro student leaders, with students advocating more drastic action and losing patience with the legal approach of the NAACP. The third article reports that a Negro man got into a car wreck with another vehicle carrying four men wearing robes, likely members of the Ku Klux Klan. The fourth article reports on the challenges facing the two newest members of the Chattanooga city school board.
April 18, 1960: There are three articles from the Free Press for this date. The first article is an editorial describing the peaceful protests of lunch counters by blacks on Market Street. The article then goes on to basically warn blacks to keep their protests peaceful or they would face all sorts of retribution from the white majority. The second article reports a resumption of protests by blacks of downtown stores. The third article is a letter to the editor which laments the fact that the Federal government can tell anyone (especially this author) what to do.
April 19, 1960: There are three articles from the Times and three articles from the Free Press for this date. The first Times article reports that a new tactic was put into effect by black protesters in Chattanooga, consisting of seven black ministers standing and praying silently on a traffic island at ninth and market streets, while holding a sign saying "We Pray For Our City In Christian Love Stop Jim Crow". The second Times article reports that former President Harry S Truman expressed the belief that Communists were engineering the student sit-downs at lunch counters in the south. The third Times article report that the bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Diocese of Alabama has asked the national council of his church to repudiate a recent document expressing sympathy for the current Negro sitdown movement in the south. The first Free Press article reports that city school authorities were making an investigation to determine whether a recent conduct directive by Superintendent J.W. Letson was violated is a series of sit-down demonstrations at four downtown stores. The second Free Press article is a letter to the editor and argues that Methodist pastors are afraid to preach against church integration because the national Methodist authority was taken over by communist infiltrators who wanted to stir up trouble. The third Free Press article is a letter to the editor detailing the intertwining of politics, religion, and the issue of segregation and civil rights applied to Chattanooga.
April 20, 1960: There are two articles from the Chattanooga Times for this date, and one article from the Free Press.The first article, a letter to the editor, decries the expulsion of students from public universities for participating in sit-ins and other anti-segregation protests, saying that it is undemocratic and stifles academic freedom. The second Times article reports on the ongoing protests against segregated businesses taking place along Market Street, saying that they were peaceful and "quiet". The Free Press article is an editorial condemning the bombing of the house of a prominent NAACP lawyer in Nashville.
April 21, 1960: There are two articles from the Chattanooga Times for this date. The first article reports that Harry Truman claimed he was misquoted when it was reported that he said Communists were to blame for the sitdown movement by students in the south. The second article reports that Howard students who participated in the sitdown demonstrations at four downtown businesses came from their homes or churches, not school, Howard Principal C.C. Bond said.
April 22, 1960: There are four articles from the Free Press for this date. The first article is an editorial bemoaning the policy of the Eisenhower administration in regards to the use of federal troops to enforce the integration of public schools (Little Rock, AR). The second article is a report on Evangelist Billy Graham's views on the subject of race. The third article reports that John W. Letson, superintendent of city schools, said that he felt there had been no violation of his conduct directive to city pupils by the sit-down demonstration by Howard students in a downtown store. The fourth article is a letter to the editor written by a Northerner giving his perspective on the race and segregation issues that were rocking the south.
April 23, 1960: There is one article from the Chattanooga Times, and six articles from the Free Press for this date. The Times article reports that WDEF-TV, Channel 12 would not carry a CBS FYI program showing the organization of sit-in demonstrations in Nashville. The first Free Press article reports on the refusal of WDEF-TV to carry this program as well. The second Free Press article reports that Mississippi's new anti-sit-down law would get its first test when seven black men from Arkansas appear in court for entering a white bathroom at a gas station and seeking service at an adjoining cafe. The third Free Press article is a letter to the editor vehemently denouncing everything about the civil right movement and desegregation. The fourth Free Press article reports the sitdown protest of seven young blacks at a Kress lunch counter in downtown Chattanooga. The fifth article is an editorial describing the proposed amendment by an Ohio senator that would apply penalties to any citizen interfering with the carrying out of a Federal court order. The sixth article is a letter to the editor which argues that blacks have a higher rate of illegitimacy and a higher rate of venereal disease, and that integration may have cause some of this, and because of these "facts" desegregation would be dangerous to the society and white people.
April 24, 1960: There is one article from the Chattanooga Times for this date. The article reports that southern students are being recruited for an "Interracial Action Institute" to be held in Miami in August. Applications being distributed stated that the participants would receive training in action, and that evaluation would be based on actual successes and failures experienced in direct, nonviolent action projects.
April 25, 1960: There are three articles from the Free Press for this date. The first reports that three white men were accused of beating and shooting at a black man, one of whom was an ex-policeman. One of them men was fined $50 for assault and battery and put under a $500 bond for a grand jury investigation. The ex-policeman was fined $50 for drunkenness. The second article reports that the city school board has given final approval of the awarding of construction contracts for the new Orchard Knob Junior High School for Negroes. The third article is an editorial which argues that the term nonviolence is a misnomer, since one of the goals of civil rights activists is to try and incite violence through their tactics.
April 26, 1960: There are two Times articles for this date. The first article reports that former president Harry Truman was sticking to his contention that he was misquoted when it was reported that he blamed communists for sit-ins and other protests in the south. The former President maintained his assertion despite there being audio recordings proving he did actually say that communists were to blame. The second article reports that a black farmer had his barn "mysteriously" burned down. The farmer said that it looked like it was deliberately set.
April 27, 1960: There is one article from the Chattanooga Times, and one article from the News Free Press for this date. The Free Press article reports that the Chattanooga Board of Education filed a motion asking US District Judge Leslie R. Darr to eliminate all issues relative to the assignment of teachers form the recent integration suit filed in Chattanooga. The integration suit requests the court to issue an injunction restraining the board of education from assigning teachers to classroom duty on the basis of race and color. The Chattanooga Times reports on the same story regarding the integration suit.
April 28, 1960: There is no material for this date.
April 29, 1960: There is one article from the Chattanooga Times for this date. The article reports that fifteen black youth carrying Bibles staged a sit-in at the lunch counter of the F.W. Woolworth Co. at 729 Market Street for approximately 20 minutes.
April 30, 1960: There are three articles for this date, two from the Times and one from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that black students staged sit-ins at four lunch counters at variety stores on Market street. The second Times article is a letter to the editor which criticizes the conditions at a work farm for legally troubles black youth, arguing that the "criminals" at this farm have an easier time and better amenities than law-abiding white folks in elementary schools in the same area. Basically the author argues that this somehow constitutes revers discrimination against whites. The Free Press article reports on the sit-in protests staged in four lunch counters on Market street, the same event reported in the Times article.
May 1, 1960: There are two articles from the Times for this date. The first article reports that young blacks, many carrying Bibles staged sit-ins at four lunch counters on Market street, and that police had to break up several verbal altercations that broke out between whites and blacks. The second Times article reports that two incidents involving reported attacks on whites by blacks were investigated by city officers.
May 2, 1960: There is on article from the Free Press for this date. The article is an editorial and, using statistics about the number of children attending independent, or private schools in New York City, makes the argument that Chattanooga could provide a sufficient number of private schools to accommodate those who wanted to avoid attending integrated public schools. The author calls the decision of the Warren Court ordering the integration of public schools unconstitutional, and is obviously an opponent of school integration.
May 3, 1960: There is no material for this date.
May 4, 1960: There are five articles for this date, three from the Times, and two from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that formal opposition developed to the Chattanooga board of education's proposal to exclude the teacher, principal, and other personnel assignment issue from the city school system integration suit in federal court, and that a brief was filed in the US District Court clerk's office in opposition to a motion to exclude the assignment issue. The second Times article reports that John Letson, superintendent of city schools addressed a luncheon hosted by the sons of the American Revolution on the topic of race and school integration, saying that some integration was inevitable. The third Times article is a letter to the editor which basically argues that the Supreme Court, in their integration decision, did not create a new law, but that it is up to Federal and local law making bodies to create laws which would comply with the decision of the court. The first Free Press article, reports on the integration motion filed with the US district Court regarding school integration, the same one reported by the Times. The second Free Press article reports on the talk that superintendent Letson gave regarding integration, the same one reported on by the Times.
May 5, 1960: There are two article from the Free Press for this date. In the first, a letter to the editor, the author first establishes his non-racist bona fides, his church is integrated and he went to an integrated eastern college after all, then proceeds to argue that the Supreme Court acted unconstitutionally when issuing its integration decisions in the mid-1950s. The second article, also a letter to the editor, argues that sit-ins and other civil rights protests were harmful to the progress (what progress?) that was being made, and that the most serious racial incidents were occurring not in the south, but in the north. The author then gives some examples of the heinous Yankee race problem.
May 6, 1960: There are three articles for this date, two from the Times, and one from the Free Press. The first Times article is a letter to the editor in which the author uses the Bible to argue that God separated the races and therefore man has no business trying to undo what God did. The second Times article reports that the teacher assignment issue was stricken from the Chattanooga school system integration suit in a decision which narrowed the case solely to the question whether the four black children initiating the litigation are entitled to have all city schools desegregated only at the pupil level. The Free Press article reports on the same integration suit decision as the Times article already described.
May 7, 1960: There is no material for this date.
May 8, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Chattanooga Times. It reports that the Times would be running a series of articles portraying in factual and dynamic terms the challenging story of black life in northern cities.
May 9, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Times. The article focuses on "Negro Extremist" Adam Clayton Powell and his preaching of a message of black nationalism in his church in Harlem. The reporter comments on the more aggressive message of these black nationalists, calling them fascists. He goes on to note however that these extremists are a minority within the overall black population. The tone of the article is one of slight alarm however, as the author seems to believe that the resentment of large populations of urban blacks living in "ghettos" might herald the start of some new movement, some new era.
May 10, 1960: There are five articles for this date, two from the Times, and three from the Free Press. The first Times article reports on crime among blacks in the "ghettos" of northern cities, focusing especially on New York. The article argues that though blacks are overrepresented in crime statistics in big cities in the north, it is not their race that leads them to a life of crime, but rather poverty. The article also argues that in the north whites and blacks are more isolated than in the south and this leads to an irrational fear by whites of blacks, and a tendency to group blacks into poor squalid areas where turning to crime is pretty much the only option left. The second Times article is a letter to the editor in which the author argues that Chattanoogans were surrendering too easily in the school integration fight and that many white residents would feel differently about the issue if they had children in the public school system. The first Free Press article reports that action was scheduled to be taken by the Knoxville Presbytery on the controversial question of whether to integrate its $243,000 camp and conference development on Watts Bar Lake. The second Free Press article is an editorial and laments the decision of Federal Judge Frank Hooper of Atlanta ordering Atlanta's public schools to comply with the Supreme Court ruling on the integration of public schools by September of 1961. The third Free Press article, a letter to the editor ridiculously tries to draw a parallel between the ancient pagan practice of child sacrifice and the Chattanooga school board's decision to integrate public schools, saying that they were sacrificing the children of the poor (those who couldn't afford to attend private schools) to the god of togetherness, while imagining a horrifying "coffee colored future" as the result of this barbarity.
May 11, 1960: There are two articles for this date, one from the Times, and on from the Free Press. The Times article goes into a detailed description of the burgeoning movement, connected with black nationalism, black Islam. The author describes the religion and its tenets focusing mainly on its growth out of Harlem. The Free Press article reports that delegates to the Knoxville Presbyter voted to integrate their new camp and conference development on Watts Bar Lake. They voted to conduct one integrated session, and two segregated sessions at the camp over the summer.
May 12, 1960: There are three articles for this date, one from the Times and two from the Free Press. The Times article details the plight of poor blacks in the slums of Harlem, and seeks to understand why they migrate from the south despite the awful conditions that confront them in the Harlem and other northern slums. Those the author interviewed still say the northern urban slums are better than the south they came from. The first Free Press Article reports that the city school board named one of its members, Raymond B. Witt Jr, to serve as chief counsel for the board in the pending school integration suit in federal court. The second Free Press article is an editorial which sentimentalizes the love and good feeling whites have for blacks in the south.
May 13, 1960: There are four articles for this date, two from the Times, and two from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that fifty black boys and girls, all students at Howard School, were arrested at the S.H. Kress & Co. store, during a sit-in protest. The second Times article reports on the voting patterns of blacks in large Northern cities, calling them the last real bloc vote. The first Free Press article reports that one of the 50 teenage black boys and girls arrested on loitering charges after a sit-in at a downtown dime store was fined $50 in city court as the group's lawyer started a test case to determine the constitutionality of the ordinance invoked against them. The second Free Press article is an editorial which cites the case of a group of rowdy whites who were kicked out of some drive ins in the late fifties, which caused the city to pass an ordinance reinforcing property owner's right to use and control their property any way they saw fit. The author then argues that this law was applied to whites as well as blacks in sit-in demonstrations making it a fair and equitable law.
May 14, 1960: There are four articles for this date, two from the Times and two from the Free Press. The first Times article reported 24 arrests and a protest march by 62 around the city jail block for approximately half an hour. The protest was in response to arrests of sit-in protesters the day before. The second Times article details the problems facing middle class blacks in suburbs, where their money and investments in housing are welcome, but where they a tacit kind of discrimination and racism. The article focuses especially on the Washington D.C. suburb of Mount Vernon. The first Free Press article reports the delay of the preliminary hearing for the 24 youths arrested in sit-in demonstrations due to the NAACP lawyer representing them taking ill. The second Free Press article is a letter to the editor which laments that the grown ups who force integration on their children do not practice what they preach when it comes to associating with members of the other race themselves.
May 15, 1960: There is no material for this date.
May 16, 1960: There is on article for this date from the Times. The article details the plight of Puerto Ricans in the north, noting that because of the lighter pigmentation of their skin would most likely result in their climb up the American social ladder easier.
May 17, 1960: There are three articles for this date, two from the Times, and one from the Free Press. The first details the "lily white unions" of the northern cities and their attempts to keep out blacks. The second article reports that sit-in arrests were made for the third consecutive school day (Monday) at the S.H. Kress & Co. store on market street. The Free Press article reports that city policemen investigated two reports that white youths were attacked and beaten by black boys in Highland Park.
May 18, 1960: There are two articles from the Times for this date. The first article reports that the Hamilton County juvenile court in effect went on record as "recognizing the right" of black juveniles to engage in sit-in demonstrations in limited numbers and orderly fashion. The second article details the lamentable state of housing conditions and housing opportunities available to blacks, both poor and reasonably well to do.
May 19, 1960: There are six articles for this date, four from the Times, and two from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that city judge Riley Graham retired charges against 21 black sit-in demonstrators after the attorney for the S.H. Kress Co. said that management did not wish to prosecute. The second Times article reports that an order taking out of the suit for integration of Chattanooga's schools all pleading seeking to prevent assignment of teachers, principals, and other school personnel on the basis of race or color was signed by US District Judge Leslie Darr. The third Times article reports that F.W. Woolworth Stores would continue to refuse to serve blacks at lunch counters in the south. The fourth Times article details the use of the legal system and court decisions by blacks to fight back against the injustices they have suffered. The first Free Press article reports on the talk that Raymond B. Witt, member of the Chattanooga board of education delivered to a Rotary Club meeting regarding the state of education in Tennessee. The second Free Press article is an editorial arguing that the city ordinance that allows loitering charges to be brought against people by business owners was not racially motivated and its use not specific to the sit-in demonstrators.
May 20, 1960: There are seven articles for this date, five from the Times and two from the Free Press. The first Times article is an editorial praising the speech gave by Raymond Witt of the Chattanooga board of education to the Rotary Club. The second article details the speech given by Witt at Rotary, on education in Tennessee and the challenges it faced. The third Times article reports that sit-ins resumed, but in smaller numbers, with no more than six to a group, as black students staged sit-ins at seven downtown stores. The fourth Times article reports that eleven black boys involved in sit-in demonstrations at Kress May 12 were made wards of the juvenile court Thursday and enjoined from participating in mass demonstrations where there were more than six of their number present. The fifth Times article argues that the NAACP had been left behind by the youth who were the true driving force behind the burgeoning civil rights movement, with sit-ins being the prime example of this. The first Free Press article reports the staging of sit-ins at seven lunch counters by groups of six. The second Free Press article reports that a black man who was injured in an altercation with policemen outside the downtown Kress store was released from Erlanger Hospital and booked at the city jail on charges of drunkenness, disorderly conduct, resisting arrest, using public profanity, and assaulting an officer.
May 21, 1960: There are two articles for this date, on from the Times, and one from the Free Press. The Times article is a letter to the editor lamenting the fact the claim that communists were somehow behind the sit-in demonstrations, arguing that blaming anything new or unorthodox on the communists is common, but not likely to be true. The Free Press article is also a letter to the editor and it praises the Free Press for its unflinching championing of all things biased towards white people. The author goes on to lament that property owners are so put upon by the federal government and champions any owner's right to serve whoever they wish.
May 22, 1960: There are three articles for this date, one from the Times and two for the Free Press. The Times article summarized the plight of the black population in the North and in the south, and gives some insight into the new movements within the populace. He also examines the goals, the new radicals within the black community and the barriers that still existed for blacks in the country and what the blacks were planning to do to overcome these obstacles. The first Free Press article is a letter to the editor in which the author argues that those who would use the Bible to advocate integration or the idea that all people are equal are misreading that text. The second Free Press article reports that NAACP Counsel Thurgood Marshall announced that there would be no appeal at this time on US District Court Judge Leslie R. Darr's recent action striking the plea for racial mixing of teachers and pupils from the Chattanooga City Council integration suit.
May 24, 1960: There is no material for this date.
May 25, 1960: There are four articles from the Free Press for this date. The first article reports that lawyers for four black youngsters seeking admission to all-white Chattanooga public schools that they will take depositions in the case next month. The second article reports that juvenile judge Burrell Barker made 22 black boys and girls wards of the court for their part in demonstrations at a white lunch counter at Kress May 12, 13, and 16. The third article is an editorial that argues for less Federal government intervention in schools. The fourth article is a letter to the editor that praises an editorial from a previous issue written about the speech of Raymond Witt of the Chattanooga board of education on the state of schools in Tennessee.
May 26, 1960: There is no material for this date.
May 27, 1960: There are nine articles for this date, five from the Times, and four from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that 22 black boys and girls were made wards of the court for their participation in sit-in demonstrations May12, 13, and 16. The second Times article is a letter to the editor arguing that the Bible supports discrimination and regrets that the Methodist Church has come out in support of integration. The third article is a letter to the editor that uses the Bible to argue for integration and praises the Methodist Church for supporting it. The fourth Times article reports that recent action by Juvenile Court Judge Burrell Barker in granting black juveniles the right to engage in equality demonstrations in limited numbers and orderly fashion was hailed by the defense attorney representing the youth charged in some of the sit-in demonstrations. The fifth Times article is a letter to the editor in which the author vigorously disagrees with Judge Barker's ruling deeming it acceptable for black youth to engage in sit-in demonstrations as long as their numbers were small and they did it in an orderly fashion. The first Free Press article is a letter to the editor arguing that while he and other southerners don't hate blacks and are not racist, they don't think it is right for blacks or anyone else to dictate to private business owners who they must serve. The second Free Press article reports that Juvenile Court judge Barker issued an order for 19 more black youths arrested during a sit-in demonstration a the Kress store May 12, the same restraining order as before against more than six taking part in the lunch counter protests. The third Free Press article reports that a 23 year old black man drew a ten year prison term on a count of assaulting with the intent to ravish a white woman in the Confederate cemetery. The fourth Free Press article is an editorial decrying the fact that those school districts complying with integration got more federal aid for schools than those not complying.
May 28, 1960: There is no material for this date.
May 29, 1960: There are two articles for this date from the Times. The first article is an editorial and criticizes Rep. Adam Clayton Powell, an African American congressman from the north and desegregation crusader. The author's Cartesian has to do with Powell's attaching a desegregation amendment to a bill that would provide Federal aid to local school systems across the country. This action, according to the author of the editorial, would put the whole bill in jeopardy. The author believes that cities were basically being held hostage by rural congressmen and that federal aid was important in helping city school systems meet the basic requirements of their students. The second article is a letter to the editor in which the author argues that communism is threatening the Methodist church, specifically the doctrine and actions of the church hierarchy, the National Council of Churches. The author also argues that segregation is likely communist influenced and that only God can correct racial inequality.
May 30, 1960: There are four articles for this date, all from the Free Press. The first article is a letter to the editor in which the author argues that those who proclaim to be Christians need to stick to the word of God, the Bible, and need to stop adding their own spin to that word. The author cites several Biblical passages that back up his argument. The second article is a letter to the editor in which the author expresses disbelief and indignation at the ruling of a local judge who declared that sit-ins were legal and permissible so long as the number of participants was kept under six and conducted in an orderly manner. The third article is a letter to the editor in which the author offers some of his thoughts on the meaning of rebirth as used in reference to Jesus and Christianity. The fourth article is a letter to the editor in which the author argues that it is not unchristian to support and promote segregation, and that all men are not brothers, only all those who are Christians are brothers and sisters in Christ. The author also expresses his belief that the desegregation movement is communist instigated agitation, and that if desegregation occurs, intermarriage between the races would be the logical result, an outcome he believes would be detrimental to both races. He also claims that his and others support of segregation is not inspired by hatred of blacks (what it is inspired by is rather unclear), and he writes that since Reconstruction the white man has been the "best friend" to the black man.
May 31, 1960: There are two articles for this date, as well as two photos, all from the Free Press. The first article is a letter to the editor, in which the author, a Baptist preacher, expresses his opposition to the election of a Catholic President of the US, in this case John F. Kennedy. The second article is an editorial arguing that Federal aid to schools will be used at some future date to force local school systems to integrate. The article mentions a current bill that has as a condition to the receipt of federal aid dollars racial integration, and though the author predicts defeat of this particular amendment to the aid bill, is wary that these conditions will at some point force racial integration. The first photo shows to white boys, who appear to be teenagers, holding picket signs and marching down Market Street in front of the Kress store where sit-ins had been occurring at the lunch counter. The boy's are staging a counter protest against the Howard High sit-in protesters. Their signs have phrases such as "The white man has rights also", "Out of the heart of darkness comes this!", "We want housing projects", and "We want something for nothing, too." The second photo shows two Howard High students and the Principal of Howard High, C.C. Bond, honoring the superintendent of Chattanooga schools with a gift of luggage. John Letson, the superintendent was leaving his post in Chattanooga to take on the superintendency of Atlanta Schools.
June 1, 1960: There are two articles for this date from the Free Press. The first article reports that attorneys for black parents seeking integration of Chattanooga schools began taking depositions from school officials. The second article praises and reviews a book, "The Negro in American Civilization", by Nathaniel Weyl. The article calls the book fair and well-researched. From the quotes that appear in the article, however, the works seems to be nothing more than a pseudo-scientific scree arguing that blacks are physiologically incapable of reaching the level of intelligence of whites, and that their history as a people is a stunted one lacking any civilization or achievement. Based on these conclusions, the author of this book sees no hope that integration of schools will work out for blacks or whites.
June 2, 1960: There are four articles for this date from the Times. The first article reports that the prosecution in the school integration case completed taking the depositions of Chattanooga school authorities after seven hours of questions and answers. The second article is a letter to the editor which opposes integration and laments that private businesses had to put up with sit-in demonstrations and the "chaos" that they caused. The author also criticizes local judge Burrell Barker, and President Eisenhower for their support (or at least not open opposition) for sit-ins and integration in general. The third article is a letter to the editor in which the author criticizes the United Presbyterian Church of the US for voting in favor of integration, as well as several other progressive policies at their convention. The fourth article is a letter to the editor that urges the integration of schools, restaurants, etc. and believes that this would be the quickest and surest way to achieve equality between the races.
June 3, 1960: There are two articles for this date, both from the Free Press. The first article reports that the school board had virtually decided upon the replacement for John Letson as Chattanooga schools superintendent, though they did not disclose the name of this individual. The second article is an editorial that decries the handout parents received at a meeting they were requested to attend for the registration of their children for the fall 1960 school year. The handout, which the editorial author labeled propaganda, urged parents to contact their senators and congressmen and urge their support of the Murray-Metcalf bill, which would provide a billion dollars a year for four years to be used in classrooms and for teacher's salaries. The author goes on to argue that acceptance of this federal aid would likely result in federal control over schools, of course leading to forced integration of all public schools.
June 4, 1960: There is on article from the Free Press for this date. The article is an editorial and argues that the National Council of Churches, a group representing Protestant churches all over the United States, was wrong in expressing support of sit-in demonstrations. The author of the editorial argues that those who participate in sit-ins are in effect stealing from the owners of the lunch counters, and the National Council of Churches, by endorsing sit-in demonstrators, was really endorsing stealing.
June 5, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Times. THe article reports that on May 18, Charles Hunter Smith Jr., a black man, took a seat at a segregated lunch counter at a store downtown and sought to be served. When he was refused, he asked a waitress to get the manager for him. The waitress refused his request and police were summoned. When police arrived Smith reportedly refused to get in their patrol car and a fight broke out. Smith was allegedly armed with two large pipe wrenches, and was injured in the ensuing melee. He was sent to Erlanger for treatment and was arrested upon his release.
June 6, 1960: There is one article for this date, from the Free Press. The article is a letter to the editor in which the author uses the Bible to argue his support for segregation.
June 7, 1960: There are two articles for this date both from the Free Press. The first article reports that blacks who want to eat out in three Northern cities face a varying "color line" that bars them from some restaurants and fades away completely at others, a UPI check showed. The report investigated segregation in Chicago, Detroit, and Philadelphia, where segregation was illegal. The second article, an editorial, complains that despite voting against integration by a lopsided margin, Houston, Texas public schools were going to be forced into desegregation by Supreme Court decrees. The author argued that this was a usurpation of the Constitution and of the right of self-determination of the voters of Houston.
June 8, 1960: There are five articles for this date, two from the Times, three from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that attorneys for the board of education, in asking for an advisory jury in the school integration case, filed five questions it hopes the jury, if authorized, will be required to answer. The five questions, the lawyers considered, would throw much light on the integration problem and open a new procedure in school integration cases. The second Times article reports that Chattanooga school authorities asked US District Judge Leslie Darr to give them "necessary time in which to educate, reconcile and bring about acceptance of a plan of desegregation of the schools." The first Free Press article reports the same request made of Judge Darr by the city school board, to delay the integration of public schools in Chattanooga. The second Free Press article is a letter to the editor that sarcastically invites all well mannered people to take a meal at Juvenile Judge Barker's home. The author in his sarcasm is referring to Judge Barker's decision that sit-ins were permissible so long as the number of participants were well-behaved and kept their number limited. The third Free Press article is an editorial that supports the decision of the Chattanooga school board requesting a delay in integrating the public schools. The author is obviously against integration, as he claims, probably correctly, a majority of Chattanoogans are, but he argues that open defiance would result in an order from the Federal court to integrate immediately, and would thus be unwise and counterproductive.
June 9, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Times. The article is an editorial praising the decision of the Chattanooga school board in their request for a delay in the implementation of public school integration.
June 10, 1960: There is one article from the Free Press for this date. The article is an editorial which argues against "Forand-type legislation". Forand was a democratic politician who introduced many bills aimed at reforming public assistance, in this case a health care reform bill, a bill this author calls socialized medicine. The author argues that the needs of patients are already being met at a local level, and the billions of new taxes that would be needed to pay for health care reform on a national level would not be worth the service such a plan would provide. The author uses the case of an 85 year old woman in Chattanooga and her exemplary care despite her lack of means to advance his argument.
June 11, 1960: There are two articles from the Times for this date. The first article reports that US District Judge Leslie Darr signed an agreed order in the Chattanooga school integration suit allowing the Negro parties until June 20 to reply to a defense motion asking for an advisory jury in the trial of the case. The second article reports that Dr. D. Trigg James of Atlanta, executive secretary of the Southeastern Jurisdictional Conference, advised that Southern Methodists must make some progress in the field of racial relations before the next general conference of the church in four years. Dr. James delivered this advice at the opening of the137th annual Holston Conference at Centenary Church in Chattanooga.
June 12, 1960: There are two articles from the Times for this date. The first article reported that no child should be handicapped in their educational endeavors by the limitations segregation currently imposes on some, according to a recommendation issued by the members of the White House Conference Follow-up Subcommittee of the Tennessee Commission on Youth Guidance. The second article reports on a debate that took place at the city school board about whether or not to institute more combination classes, or classes with pupils from different grades in the schools. The proposal to adopt combination classes was initiated because of a drop in enrollment in the schools, and an increased proportion of black students, according to the article.
June 13, 1960: There are two articles for this date from the Free Press. The first article reports that the time for decisions regarding race relations was at hand, according to the Rev. Dr. Paul E. Brown, pastor of Trinity Methodist, Oak Ridge. Dr. Brown, speaking in a report as chairman of the Holston Conference Board of Christian Social Relations, said that many of the churches in the conferences will be forced to make decisions during the next year regarding the churches' position concerning race relations. The second article is an editorial that blasts Senator Estes Kefauver, who had just kicked off his reelection campaign. The author accuses Kefauver of kowtowing to the NAACP in not standing up with other Southern States in opposing integration and in voting for the 1960 civil rights bill, of voting the way union bosses want him to, and being an internationalist who doesn't stand up for the power and sovereignty of the United States.
June 14, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Free Press. The article is an editorial that expresses support for Vanderbilt, which had expelled a student for his involvement in civil rights protesting. The expulsion caused the dean of the divinity school to resign in protest and an uproar ensued. The editorial author calls the protests irrational agitation and commends Vanderbilt for sticking to its guns.
June 15, 1960: There is one article from the Free Press for this date. The article is a letter to the editor and argues that discrimination is backed up by the Bible, citing numerous examples of Biblical discrimination. The author also claims that efforts to persuade Americans not to discriminate because of race, creed, or color is communistic, and some sort of devious propaganda plotted by the United Nations with the aim of setting up a one-world government.
June 16, 1960: There are four articles for this date, one from the Times, and three from the Free Press. The Times article reports that the purchase of a site and the preparation of plans and specifications for a new high school north of the Tennessee River are expected to have first priority from the city school board with its share of the $1,500,000 bond issue voted the County Council. The first Free Press article reports that the relocation of Chattanooga High School to a yet undetermined sit in North Chattanooga may be a reality withing three years according to school officials. The second Free Press article is an editorial and lambastes Senator Kefauver for his support of the 1960 civil rights bill. The author claims that the civil rights bill Kefauver voted for violated the US Constitution in 12 different ways, each of which are listed. The third article is a letter to the editor in which the author goes on a tirade against the state of the education system nationally, listing several of what he thinks are the results of educational failure.
June 17, 1960: There is one article from the Free Press for this date. The article is a letter to the editor lamenting that some preachers have come out supporting integration and desegregation. This author is a staunch supporter of desegregation and argues that some preachers supporting integration must want the annihilation of the white race.
June 18, 1960: There is one article from the Free Press for this date. The article is an editorial that paints Senator Kefauver as an NAACP-type Senator, and denounces his voting record on "race issues", especially his vote for the 1960 civil rights bill.
June 19, 1960: There is no material for this date.
June 20, 1960: There are three articles for this date, all from the Free Press. The first article is an editorial endorsing Judge Andrew (Tip) Taylor for US Senate. The author highlights some of Taylor's strength, especially his opposition to integration, and cites some of Senator Kefauver's positions which it argues against. The second article is a letter to the editor denouncing Estes Kefauver and his support for integration.He also claims that Chattanoogans seemed to want complete integration and that the best way to get it was a vote for Kefauver. The third article is a letter to the editor lamenting the fact that several churches and religious people had been endorsing integration. The author also argues that the whole civil rights movement, including sit-ins was a communist plan, that these religious authorities were following to a T. Also, the author claims that the NAACP was organized by communists and that Supreme Court Justice Frankfurter was a communist.
June 21, 1960: There are eight articles for this date, one from the Times, and seven from the Free Press. The Times article reports that counsel for the black children who seek to integrate the Chattanooga school system moved to speed up their case in Federal court Monday by filing a motion for a summary judgment on the grounds "there are no general issues as to any material fact in this case" requiring a formal trial. The first Free Press article is a letter to the editor defending Senator Kefauver and decrying the "cheap" attacks made on him. The second Free Press article questions the reason for Senator Kefauver being left out of meetings of other lawmakers concerning questions of interest to southern states. The author's answer is that Kefauver isn't interested in the welfare of southern states, Tennessee included. The third Free Press article is a letter to the editor in which the author expresses opposition to Kefauver for US Senator. The fourth article is a letter to the editor expressing the author's puzzlement at seeing both a confederate flag and an Estes Kefauver bumper sticker on a car, thinking the two icons incompatible ideologically with one another. The fifth article is a letter to the editor supporting Judge Taylor in the upcoming Senate race against Estes Kefauver. The sixth article imagines a grand communist conspiracy wherein the integration movement is a plot by the Soviet Union to weaken the US and the south and put blacks in charge of whites, akin to "Birth of a Nation". The seventh article is an editorial opposing Senator Kefauver and describing some of the advantages and disadvantages he faced leading to his upcoming primary challenge in August. The eighth article reports that a motion was filed in federal court by attorneys for Negroes who have asked for integration of Chattanooga public schools seeking to bypass a trial of the integration suit by obtaining a summary judgment.
June 22, 1960: There are three articles for this date, one from the Times and two from the Free Press. The Times article is a letter to the editor in which the author describes seeing a crowd of black youth yelling at whites after the screening of a boxing match at the Memorial auditorium. The author worries that "Negro leadership" should rein in unruly black youth, and wonders how school integration will go. The first Free Press article is an editorial that quotes the NAACP as saying that both Richard Nixon, the Republican frontrunner for President, and John Kennedy, the Democratic frontrunner for President, both had good records on civil rights. The author of the editorial then laments that southerners have no candidate who has their interests at heart, and concluded that there needed to be some independent candidate with southern interests as his platform. The third article is a letter to the editor written by a Methodist pastor who was against integration, and claimed the Bible didn't support integration, and saying that integration would be detrimental to both races. He also claimed that the whole civil rights movement was ruining good relations between whites and blacks and was run by hairbrained radicals.
June 23, 1960: There are seven articles for this date, two from the Times, and five from the Free Press.The first Times article is an editorial lamenting the fact that despite graduating hundreds of black students every year, many of whom would qualify for college work, there was no college those blacks could attend other than the tiny Zion College, which couldn't accomodate the need. The editorial reports that a study was to take place in August of 1960 that would hopefully identify the need that existed in Chattanooga and figure out some solution to meet it. The second Times article reports on some of the numbers obtained from the preliminary US Census Bureau tabulation. The first Free Press article reports that new demonstrations by blacks against segregation at lunch counters began in North Carolina. The articles states that the lunch counter demonstrations, which began last February, had virtually ceased in the south since the beginning of summer vacation at schools and colleges. New demonstrations had begun again reports the article. The second Free Press article is an editorial that denounces the Warren Court and its rulings regarding voting rights, and the Civil Rights Commission. The third article reported that a white youth from Wayne, PA, who was working in Chattanooga for the summer reported to police that he was attacked and beaten with mop handles by three unidentified black men. The fourth article is an editorial that praises Tennessee Congressman Carroll Reece for his vote against the federal aid to schools bill in the US House of Representatives. The fifth article is a letter to the editor in which the author defends Senator Kefauver and puts the blame for integration on the Supreme Court claiming that Kefauver couldn't do anything about the issue if he wanted to.
June 24, 1960: There are three articles for this date, all from the Free Press. The first article reports that the campaign between Senator Estes Kefauver and Judge Andrew Taylor warmed up when Taylor challenged Kefauver's record on civil rights. The attack brought a response from the Kefauver camp, as the two candidates edged closer to Kingsport where both would speak over the same weekend. The second article is a letter to the editor expressing support for Senator Kefauver. The third article is an editorial denouncing the campaign for President of John Kennedy, who said he was writing off the south and would win the Democratic nomination without Dixie. The editorial lays out several charges against Kennedy including supporting left-wing legislation and kowtowing to union bosses.
June 25, 1960: There are five articles for this date, all from the Free Press. The first article is an editorial supporting Andrew Taylor for the democratic nomination for US Senate against incumbent Senator Kefauver. The second article is an editorial denouncing John Kennedy for his public praise of sit-in demonstrators. The third article is a letter to the editor opposing Kefauver in his Senate reelection bid. The fourth article is a letter to the editor supports an earlier letter written by a pastor who was against integration. The fifth article is a letter to the editor opposing the reelection of Estes Kefauver.
June 26, 1960: There is one article from the Times for this date. The article is a letter to the editor expressing a desire to see more religious toleration extended to our fellow citizens. The author cites several examples, but a notable one is the talk surrounding JFK's Catholicism.
June 27, 1960: There are two articles for this date, both from the Free Press. The first article is an editorial comparing the records of Senator Johnson and Senator Kennedy on several key vote. The comparison finds that there is only a minute difference between the two men, at least when compared on the issues raised in this editorial. Both men scored very low on this author's scale, and his conclusion is that both men would be bad for the south (meaning basically that they don't support racism and segregation) and they both support big government and higher taxes. The second article reports that city police received another report that unidentified African Americans threw rocks at moving cars in South Chattanooga.
June 28, 1960: There are two articles for this date, both from the Free Press. The first article is an editorial that highlights some of the key differences between Estes Kefauver and Andrew Taylor, the opponents for the Democratic nomination for the US Senate. The conclusion of the editorial is that Taylor would be better for Tennessee.The second article reports that Milton D. McClure, Chattanooga attorney and former state finance and taxation department executive, was named Third Congressional District manager of Judge Andrew Taylor's campaign for the US Senate.
June 29, 1960: There is one article for this date, from the Free Press. The article is an editorial that argues against federal aid to schools, concluding that if federal aid for education came it was sure that with or without a segregation-integration provision, with or without specific federal controls, the aid would be used to take away local self-determination.
June 30, 1960: There are three articles for this date, all from the Free Press. The first article is an editorial and it endorses Andrew Taylor for the democratic nomination for the US Senate over incumbent Estes Kefauver. The second article is an editorial arguing that integration is detrimental, and there was even data from the north that showed people there recognized this truth (though the data is questionable). The third article reported that police were without tangible clues in their investigation of a report that a white woman was criminally assaulted by eight young black men, one of the investigators reported.
July 1, 1960: There is one article from the Free Press for this date. The article reports that city policemen investigated a report that someone fired an arrow from a moving automobile and hit a black woman.
July 2, 1960:There are five articles for this date, all from the Free Press. The first article is an editorial that criticizes John Kennedy, candidate for the Democratic nomination for President. The main criticism of Kennedy is his support of integration not only in public facilities like schools, but also in private matters like lunch counters, housing, employment, etc. The author claims that Kennedy is riding roughshod over the rights of private property owners with his stand. The second article is a letter to the editor blasting the Free Press and its criticism of Senator Kefauver as a traitor to the South. The author expresses the opinion that the Free Press is a bigger traitor to the south because of its clear Republican bias, a bias going against the overwhelmingly Democratic character of the south as a whole.The third article reports that the NEA (Naitonal Education Association, the main union for teachers and other education employees) had altered its five year stand on public school integration. The NEA's revised position did not condemn segregated schools and did not demand compliance with the Supreme Court's desegregation decision of 1954. The NEA urged that the resolution of the problems of integration be found on state and local levels, and praised the communitites that had already taken steps toward integrating their public schools. The fourth article reports that the annual Tennessee conference of the Methodist Church met in Jackson, TN. The meeting occurred in the wake of a charge that there was discrimination in hiring at the Methodist Publishing House at Nashville. The Board on Christian Social Concerns asked the conference to go on record against discriminatory hiring within Methodist church agencies, and stated that they "seriously deplore and regret the failure of our general conference to really face up to the un-Christian nature of the racially structured jurisdiction within the church". The fifth article reports that authorities in Knoxville, TN were expecting a break in week-long demonstrations protesting segregated eating facilities. Twelve people had been arrested for disorder during these protests, 11 blacks and 1 white.
July 3, 1960: There is no material for this date.
July 4, 1960: There is no material for this date.
July 5, 1960: There is one article for this date from the Free Press. The article, an editorial, denounces Senator Kefauver for his left-wing record and calls into question the financial support the author claims he is receiving from big labor unions and "NAACP-types". The author quotes Kefauver's opponent in the Democratic primary, Andrew Taylor, as saying that Kefauver has a luxurious campaign bus and convoy in which he travels, and that the scant fundraising that he does on the road is just for show, his real campaign cash coming from shady union organizations and other shady left-wing groups. The editorial also includes a ringing endorsement of Andrew Taylor as Tennessee's US Senator.
July 6, 1960: There are three articles for this date, both from the Free Press. The first article is an editorial that blasts Estes Kefauver's Senate record, calling it identical to that of Northern liberal Hubert Humphrey, and accusing Kefauver of voting against the interests of Tennesseans. The article also endorses Kefauver's primary opponent Andrew Taylor. The second article is a letter to the editor written by a WWII vet. He points out that Estes Kefauver's opponent Andrew Taylor was a WWII vet, and denounces Kefauver for his lack of service. The author then encourages other veterans to back Taylor for US Senate. The third article is a letter to the editor and denounces Kefauver for his support of integration and betrayal of the south. He urges his fellow union members to forget the fact that Kefauver has the backing of union leadership and urges them to vote for Andrew Taylor.
July 7, 1960: There are three articles for this date, all from the Free Press. The first article is an editorial denouncing Senator Kefauver and his record on the economy, claiming that the Senator and his actions in the Senate were a major contributor to increased inflation and other economic woes. The editorial promotes Andrew Taylor for Senate. The second article is an editorial that laments the fact that the Democratic Party, in preparing for the national convention, was throwing the south under the bus on the race and integration issue. The author claims that the party was working on a civil rights plank that would "betray" the south and alienate southern voters from the party. The third article is a report written by a staff writer for the NEA, who travelled all over the south to gauge the feelings of whites and blacks on the integration question. His findings were that most whites strongly opposed integration, and that even many blacks were not passionate about the subject. He did note that there were small pockets of desegregation scattered across the south, and that some, if very little, progress was being made toward integration.
July 8, 1960: There are five articles for this date, all from the Free Press. The first article reports that five New York City black political leaders said that a Catholic on both the Democratic and Republican presidential tickets was mandatory. But the five, including Rep. Adam Clayton Powell (D-NY), reiterated their opposition to Senator John F. Kennedy for the Democratic presidential nomination. The second article is an editorial written by the publisher of the Johnson City Press-Chronicle, in which he defends the Free Press and their editorial staff, and lays out a lengthy and detailed attack on Senator Kefauver, contrasting the incumbent with his opponent Andrew Taylor, who the author strongly endorses. The third article is an editorial attacking Estes Kefauver and endorsing his opponent Andrew Taylor for US Senate. The fourth article is an editorial framing the choice the Democratic Party had to make at their national convention: embody a strong civil rights plank in their platform and potentially lose the election, or pander to the voters of the south and dodge the question of integration and civil rights altogether. The author is obviously of the opinion that the south and its voters were in the right in their support of racism and segregation. The fifth article is a letter to the editor which quotes from a Chattanooga observer article which described the visit by Hamilton County Sheriff Bookie Turner to a black church in Orchard Knob. The article seems to suggest that Turner is playing politics with his visit, courting the black vote, just as the article claims he courted the white vote in his last run for office, which he only barely won. The letter as a whole points out the hypocrisy of Turner as a politician.
July 9, 1960: There are two articles for this date, one from the Times, and one from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that the Chattanooga Board of Education sought to end the school integration suit pending in Federal Court without a formal trial by filing through its counsel a motion for summary judgment, listing three grounds which it contends are cause for dismissing the litigation. The Free Press article reports the same motion for summary judgment filed by the counsel for the Chattanooga Board of Education.
July 10, 1960: There is no material for this date.
July 11, 1960: There are two articles for this date, both from the Free Press. The first article, an editorial, condemns the Democratic Party for bowing down to the NAACP with its three pronged platform on civil rights. The author calls for the repudiation of the platform and denounces it in the strongest terms. The second article is also an editorial and it criticizes the record of Estes Kefauver, urging the election of his opponent Andrew Taylor.
July 12, 1960: There are two articles for this date, both from the Free Press. The first article is an editorial lamenting the fact that both major political parties, the Republicans and the Democrats, have had their frontrunning candidates for president endorsed by the NAACP. The second article reports that an Avondale girl was treated at Erlanger for a head cut she said was inflicted by a rock hurled at a moving car by a black person at Third and Willow Streets.
July 13, 1960: There are three articles for this date, all from the Free Press. The first article is an editorial and it details the civil rights plank that was adopted at the Democratic National Convention. The editorial strongly denounces the Democrats' civil rights plank point by point calling it unconstitutional, and speculating that it may cost them the presidential election. The second article is an editorial denouncing Estes Kefauver and urging the election of his opponent, Andrew Taylor. The third article is an editorial that claims there was an undertone of communist admiration to the Democratic National convention, especially when the civil rights plank was being introduced and read. The author also claims that Democrats sought to create an American inferiority complex by highlighting communist progress and American failures, or things in America that need improvement.
July 14, 1960: There is one article from the Free Press for this date. The article reports that the city school board received a report that it had spent, since 1949, a total of $4,219,431.96 on Negro school buildings and $3,780,993.97 on buildings for whites.
July 15, 1960: There are four articles for this date, one from the Times, and three from the Free Press. The Times article reports that a house nearing completion in a Negro settlement in the Jersey community was blasted and burned by an explosive. The house was being built by a long time schoolteacher for her soldier son who was due to leave the Army soon. The first Free Press article is an editorial that argues the pick of Lyndon Johnson as Kennedy's running mate was a political bribe. Johnson, the editorial argues, was picked because he was a southerner, and the Kennedy campaign hoped that his selection would cause voters to overlook the civil rights plank of the Democratic Party. The editorial warns readers not to be fooled as Johnson had agreed to endorse and campaign on the entirety of the Democratic platform. The second Free Press article is a bulletin announcing that attorneys for Negroes seeking desegregation of Chattanooga public schools today were to file in US District Court a memorandum aimed at bringing court denial of the school board's motion for a summary judgment to throw out the integration suit. The third Free Press Article is a letter to the editor denouncing the civil rights plank adopted by the Democratic Party at their national convention.
July 16, 1960: There are six articles for this date, three from the Times, and three from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that a fire that burned down an almost completed house in the Negro community of Jersey was almost certainly the result of arson involving the use of gasoline as an accelerant, according to the fire marshal. The second Times article is an editorial expressing outrage at the intentional destruction of a black persons home by arson. The third Times article reports that Negro attorneys disputed the Chattanooga city school board's claim that the integration suit pending in federal court is not a class action and insisted it was brought to secure Negroes' rights under the 14th Amendment. The first Free Press article is an editorial that denounces JFK's presidential nomination acceptance speech as promoting big government and claims that his program would limit productivity by taking from the producers and giving voters free handouts to secure their support. The second Free Press article is an editorial that argues the Democratic civil rights platform is a form of tyranny, as it seeks to limit private citizen's free choice and deny them the use of their private property as they see fit. The author also argues that the platform would give unconstitutional power to agents of the federal government to interfere in the purview of states and how they conducted their business. The third Free Press article is a letter to the editor in which the author opines about the recent independence of Congo, and the chance it offered the world to see how a government of blacks would rule a fairly sizable white population. The author uses the violence following the independence of Congo, and what he alleges happened (most likely untrue racist stories of packs of lascivious blacks raping every white woman or girl in sight), as an example of what could happen in the US if integration was allowed to proceed.
July 17, 1960: There are two articles for this date, all from the Times. The first article reports that a dynamite blast was set off in a Negro residential section of Fort Cheatham, 2200 Dodds Avenue, causing damage to two homes and a two-story brick building, the upper floor of which was occupied by two families. The second article is an editorial supporting Estes Kefauver and opposing Andrew Taylor in the US Senate Race. The author questions Taylor on civil rights and criticizes hi campaign for being entirely negative.
July 18, 1960: There are three articles for this date, all from the Times. The first article reports that the Council for Cooperative Action called for a "sincere effort" on the part of law enforcement officers to apprehend persons responsible for recent bombings in Negro residential areas. The second article reports that a police investigation into the explosion that shook the Negro residential section of Fort Cheatham indicated a time bomb may have been used. The third article is a letter to the editor condemning the record of Senator Kefauver and the civil rights platform adopted by the Democratic party. The author endorses Andrew Taylor for US Senate in the race against Kefauver.
July 19, 1960: There are three articles for this date, all from the Free Press. The first article is an editorial praising Andrew Taylor's opposition of the civil rights plank adopted by the Democrats at their national convention. The second article is a letter to the editor criticizing the Democrats for their decisions at the national convention, especially the platform adopted on civil rights. The third article is a letter to the editor criticizing Andrew (Tip) Taylor, suggesting that he be called "Flip" instead of "Tip" because of his frequent flip flops on several issues. The author endorses Kefauver for Senate.
July 20, 1960: There are four articles for this date, two from the Times, and two from the Free Press. The first Times article reports that the first hearing in federal court on the Chattanooga school integration case was to be held this day. The second Times article is a letter to the editor condemning the burning down of a black person's house, and hoping the racist arsonist would be caught. The first Free Press article is an editorial condemning Estes Kefauver and endorsing Andrew Taylor for the Democratic nomination for US Senate.
July 21, 1960: There are five articles for this date, four from the Free Press, and one from the Times. The first Free Press article reports that in a move to avoid circumstances similar to those which caused temporary dismissal of a desegregation suit in Knoxville, an agreed order was filed in federal court on motion of plantiffs to substitute Dr. Guy Potts, acting superintendent of city schools, as a defendant in place of Dr. John W. Leston. The second Free Press article reports that a fight broke out in a packed dance hall for Negroes on East Ninth Street and one of the three Negro patrolmen who quelled the disorder reported he had to draw his pistol to prevent a crowd closing in and taking away the four people he had arrested. The third article is a letter to the editor in which the author cites several incidents of attacks on whites by blacks and expresses his fear that unless something is done to stop such incidents, a race war could erupt in Chattanooga. The fourth Free Press article is an editorial that denounces Kefauver by attacking his voting record point by point. The Times article reports that US District Judge Leslie R. Darr promised a decision as soon as possible on the issues raised by the parties to the suit which seeks to integrate the Chattanooga schools system. Darr heard nearly two hours of arguments , and had three pending motions on which he had to decide.
July 22, 1960: There are three articles for this date, all from the Times. The first article reports that fines of $50 and costs were levied in city court against four of five persons arrested on disorderly conduct charges as police quelled a brawl in a Negro dance hall on 9th Street. The second article is a letter to the editor supporting the candidacy of Estes Kefauver for US Senate and opposing Andrew Taylor. The third article is a letter to the editor also expressing support for Kefauver.
July 23, 1960: There is no material for this date.
July 24, 1960: There is no material for this date.
July 25, 1960: There are two articles for this date, both from the Free Press. The first article reports Estes Kefauver's attacks on his opponent, Andrew Taylor. The second article is an editorial denouncing Kefauver and supporting the candidacy of Andrew Taylor.
July 26, 1960: There are five articles from this date, one from the Times, and four from the Free Press. The Times article is an editorial supporting Estes Kefauver over his opponent Andrew Taylor. The first Free Press article is an editorial lamenting the fact that both of the major party candidates for president were not staunch enough defenders of the constitution, the author argues that congress would be the major battleground for constitutional defense. With that in mind, the author urged his readers to vote for Andrew Taylor and oust Estes Kefauver. The second Free Press article is a letter to the editor criticizing both the record of Senator Kefauver and the platform of the Democratic party, especially the civil rights plank of the platform. The third Free Press article is a letter to the editor criticizing the Free Press editorial board and Andrew Taylor, and supporting the candidacy of Estes Kefauver. The fourth Free Press article reports that Kefauver, in Morristown, TN, accused his opponent Andrew Taylor of judicial tyranny during Taylor's time as a judge.
July 27, 1960: There are three articles for this date, all from the Free Press. All three articles are either editorials or letters to the editor, and all three are opposed to the reelection of Estes Kefauver, and support his opponent, Andrew Taylor.
July 28, 1960: There are seven articles for this date, all from the Free Press. The first article is an editorial lamenting the fact that both national Democrats and national Republicans, specifically Nixon and Kennedy, are in support of using the federal government to force public schools across the nation to integrate, and in general for more involvement of the federal government in what the author sees as areas not in their purview. The second article is an editorial describing the Republican candidate for president, Richard Nixon. The editorial seems to neither support nor oppose Nixon, although it definitely opposes Kennedy. The third article is and editorial opposing the reelection of Estes Kefauver. The fourth article is an editorial lamenting the fact that both major political parties seemed to be ignoring the south in their national campaigns. The fifth article is a letter to the editor supporting Taylor for US Senate in his race to unseat Kefauver. The sixth article is an editorial defending Kefauver and opposing Taylor. The seventh article is a letter to the editor that condemns the conventions of both major parties, and criticizes the stances they have both taken on the integration issue.
July 29, 1960: There are six articles for this date, all from the Free Press. The first two are letters to the editor, and both oppose the reelection Kefauver and support his opponent Taylor. The third article is a letter to the editor opposing Taylor and supporting Kefauver. The fourth article is a letter to the editor opposing Taylor and supporting Kefauver. The fifth article is criticizing the Free Press editorial board for twisting and contorting itself into support of Nixon, even though he is as supportive of civil rights and integration as Kennedy and the Democrats. The sixth article is an editorial denouncing the leftism of Kefauver.
July 30, 1960: There are two articles for this date, one from the Times, and one from the Free Press. The Times article is a letter to the editor supporting the reelection of Estes Kefauver. The Free Press article is an editorial criticizing Kefauver and urging the election of his opponent, Taylor.
July 31, 1960: There is one article for this date, from the Times. The article reports on the upcoming primary contest between Estes Kefauver and Andrew Taylor, saying that this election was one of the only one in which race played a factor.
Date 1960
Dates of Creation 04/12/1960 - 07/31/1960
Extent of Description 15.50" x 13.25" x 1.50"
Lexicon category 8: Communication Artifact
Lexicon sub-category Documentary Artifact
Accession number 1998.080